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Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) and a fungus Beauveria brongniartii for biological control of the white grubs, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Exomala orientalis, in Korean golf courses

Research paper by Ho Yul Choo, Harry K. Kaya, Jin Huh, Dong Woon Lee, Hyeong Hwan Kim, Sang Myeong Lee, Young Moo Choo

Indexed on: 01 Apr '02Published on: 01 Apr '02Published in: BioControl



Abstract

Three species of entomopathogenicnematodes, a combination of two nematodespecies, an entomopathogenic fungal species,and a combination of a nematode and fungalspecies were evaluated against the white grubsEctinohoplia rufipes and Exomalaorientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the field. The nematodes were acommercial formulation of Steinernemacarpocapsae (BioSafe) and S. glaseri from Dongrae and from Hanrim, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora from Hamyang,Republic of Korea. The entomopathogenic funguswas Beauveria brongniartii, produced onSabouraud maltose agar plus 1% yeast (SMAY),rice bran, or compost. The combinationtreatment was S. carpocapsae with H.bacteriophora or B. brongniartii. Fieldapplications were made in August or Septemberagainst third instars at a golf course infestedwith E. rufipes in Gyeongnam Province in1991, and one in Pusan with E. orientalisin 1992 and 1993. In 1991, a significantreduction of 70.2 to 79.4% of E. rufipeslarvae was observed in the nematode, fungal andchemical (fenitrothion) treatments comparedwith a 15.7% reduction in the control. In1992, the E. orientalis larval populationwas reduced between 62.7 and 82.8% in thetreatments compared to 10.7% in the control.In 1993, larval reductions in plots treatedwith nematodes (78.3 to 97%) and B.brongniartii propagated on rice bran (84.5%)were significantly better than in plots treatedwith B. brongniartii propagated on SMAY(63.6%) or compost (59.6%). Combining twonematode species did not enhance the efficacycompared to treatments with one nematodespecies alone, but combining S.carpocapsae with B. brongniartiiproduced on SMAY resulted in a significantincrease in grub mortality over the applicationof the fungus alone produced on SMAY orcompost. The high efficacy of the nematode andmost fungal treatments was attributed to theclose proximity of the white grubs to the soilsurface which allowed for excellentpathogen-host contact and to favorable soiltemperatures, sandy soil, post irrigationapplication and/or rain and a minimal thatchlayer in the turfgrass.