Indexed on: 07 Feb '18Published on: 07 Feb '18Published in: arXiv - Quantum Physics
Multipartite entanglement has been widely regarded as key resources in distributed quantum computing, for instance, multi-party cryptography, measurement based quantum computing, quantum algorithms. It also plays a fundamental role in quantum phase transitions, even responsible for transport efficiency in biological systems. Certifying multipartite entanglement is generally a fundamental task. Since an $N$ qubit state is parameterized by $4^N-1$ real numbers, one is interested to design a measurement setup that reveals multipartite entanglement with as little effort as possible, at least without fully revealing the whole information of the state, the so called "tomography", which requires exponential energy. In this paper, we study this problem of certifying entanglement without tomography in the constrain that only single copy measurements can be applied. This task is formulate as a membership problem related to a dividing quantum state space, therefore, related to the geometric structure of state space. We show that universal entanglement detection among all states can never be accomplished without full state tomography. Moreover, we show that almost all multipartite correlation, include genuine entanglement detection, entanglement depth verification, requires full state tomography. However, universal entanglement detection among pure states can be much more efficient, even we only allow local measurements. Almost optimal local measurement scheme for detecting pure states entanglement is provided.