Entanglement and correlation functions of a recent exactly solvable spin chain

Research paper by Ramis Movassagh

Indexed on: 24 Feb '16Published on: 24 Feb '16Published in: Quantum Physics


We present exact results on the exactly solvable spin chain of Bravyi et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 207202 (2012)]. This model is a spin one chain and has a Hamiltonian that is local and translationally invariant in the bulk. It has a unique (frustration free) ground state with an energy gap that is polynomially small in the system's size ($2n$). The half-chain entanglement entropy of the ground state is $\frac{1}{2}\log n+const.$. Here we first write the Hamiltonian in the standard spin-basis representation. We prove that at zero temperature, the magnetization is along the $z-$direction i.e., $\langle s^{x}\rangle=\langle s^{y}\rangle=0$ (everywhere on the chain). We then analytically calculate $\langle s^{z}\rangle$ and the two-point correlation functions of $s^{z}$. By analytically diagonalizing the reduced density matrices, we calculate the Schmidt rank, von Neumann and R\'enyi entanglement entropies for: 1. Any partition of the chain into two pieces (not necessarily in the middle) and 2. $L$ consecutive spins centered in the middle. Further, we identify entanglement Hamiltonians (Eqs. 40 and 50). We prove a small lemma (Lemma1) on the combinatorics of lattice paths using the reflection principle to relate and calculate the Motzkin walk 'height' to spin expected values. We also calculate the, closely related, (scaled) correlation functions of Brownian excursions. The known features of this model are summarized in a table in Sec.I.