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Engineering therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

Research paper by Xiao-yun XY Liu, Laurentiu M LM Pop, Ellen S ES Vitetta

Indexed on: 28 Mar '08Published on: 28 Mar '08Published in: Immunological Reviews



Abstract

During last two decades, the chimerization and humanization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have led to the approval of several for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection. Additional approaches have been used to further improve their in vivo activity. These include combining them with other modalities such as chemotherapy and redesigning them for improved pharmacokinetics, effector function, and signaling activity. The latter has taken advantage of new insights emerging from an increased understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are involved in the interaction of immunoglobulin G with Fc receptors and complement as well as the negative signaling resulting from the hypercrosslinking of their target antigens. Hence, mAbs have been redesigned to include mutations in their Fc portions, thereby endowing them with enhanced or decreased effector functions and more desirable pharmacokinetic properties. Their valency has been increased to decrease their dissociation rate from cells and enhance their ability to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In this review we discuss these redesigned mAbs and current data concerning their evaluation both in vitro and in vivo.