Indexed on: 27 Aug '14Published on: 27 Aug '14Published in: Connective tissue research
There has been increasing concerns over last 20 years about the potential adverse effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Bisphenol A (BPA), genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) are three widely used EDs having similar effects. Tooth enamel has recently been found to be an additional target of BPA that may be a causal agent of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH). However, populations are exposed to many diverse EDs simultaneously. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the effects of the combination of G, V and BPA on tooth enamel. Rats were exposed daily in utero and after birth to low doses of EDs mimicking human exposure during the critical fetal and suckling periods when amelogenesis takes place. The proportion of rats presenting opaque areas of enamel hypomineralization was higher when rats were treated with BPA alone than with a combination of EDs. The levels of mRNAs encoding the main enamel proteins varied with BPA treatment alone and did not differ significantly between controls and combined treatment groups. In vitro, rat ameloblastic HAT-7 cells were treated with the three EDs. BPA induced enamelin and reduced klk4 expression, G had no such effects and V reduced enamelin expression. These findings suggest that combinations of EDs may affect enamel less severely than BPA alone, and indicate that enamel hypomineralization may differ according to the characteristics of the ED exposure.