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Elevated IL-13 in effusions of patients with HIV and primary effusion lymphoma as compared with other KSHV-associated disorders.

Research paper by Ramya R Ramaswami, Kathryn K Lurain, Vickie Ann VA Marshall, Adam A Rupert, Nazzarena N Labo, Elena E Cornejo-Castro, Wendell W Miley, Hao-Wei HW Wang, Anaida A Widell, Matthew M Lindsley, Constance C Yuan, Maryalice M Stetler-Stevenson, Armando C AC Filie, Denise D Whitby, Joseph J Ziegelbauer, et al.

Indexed on: 20 Sep '20Published on: 19 Sep '20Published in: AIDS (London, England)



Abstract

To assess the cytokine and viral profiles of effusions and peripheral blood among patients diagnosed with HIV and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as human herpesvirus 8 [HHV-8]) associated conditions. Retrospective comparative study evaluating clinicopathologic findings in patients with HIV and KSHV-associated conditions presenting with an effusion between 2010-2018. Paired peripheral blood and effusion samples collected at the time of pathological diagnosis of KSHV-associated conditions (Kaposi sarcoma (KS), KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), or KSHV-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS)) were evaluated for disease-specific and compartment-specific (effusion versus blood) characteristics. We assessed 12 cytokines, KSHV viral DNA, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral DNA (KSHV-VL, EBV-VL). Nine patients had PEL, 5 patients had KSHV-MCD, and 8 patients met criteria for KICS; all but 1 patient had concurrent KS in addition to these conditions. PEL effusions had substantially higher levels of IL-13 (median 16.9 pg/ml; interquartile range 9.7-26.9 pg/ml) compared to KSHV-MCD (median <0.114 pg/ml; p = 0.0037) or KICS (median <0.114 pg/ml; p = 0.0003) effusions. IL-13 was also higher in PEL effusions as compared to serum (median <0.12 ng/ml; p = 0.007). KSHV-VL levels were significantly higher in PEL effusions as compared to KICS effusions (median 31x10 vs. 569 copies/million-cell equivalent; p = 0.0005) or KSHV-MCD effusions (median 231,884 copies/million-cell equivalent; p = 0.02). PEL effusions had a distinct profile as compared to other KSHV-associated diseases with regard to elevated IL-13 and KSHV-VL. These findings may provide insights into PEL pathogenesis and aid in diagnosis.

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