Indexed on: 06 Oct '06Published on: 06 Oct '06Published in: High Energy Physics - Phenomenology
We review the description of the lowest-energy nucleon excitation -- the $\Delta$(1232)-resonance. Much of the recent experimental effort has been focused on the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-$\Delta$ transition by means of electromagnetic probes. We confront the results of these measuremnts with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-$N_c$ relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. We also discuss the link of the nucleon-to-$\Delta$ form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Some of the theoretical approaches are reviewed in detail, in particular, recent dynamical and unitary-isobar models of pion electroproduction, which are extensively used in the interpretation of experiments. Also, the novel extension of chiral EFTs to the energy domain of the $\Delta$-resonance is described in detail. The two-photon exchange effects in the electroexcitation of the $\De$-resonance are addressed here as well.