Effects of Fe2O3 addition on the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties of 0.99Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3-0.01Bi(Y1−xFex)O3 ceramics for energy-harvesting devices

Research paper by Iqbal Mahmud, Soon-Chul Ur, Man-Soon Yoon

Indexed on: 06 Aug '14Published on: 06 Aug '14Published in: The journal of the Korean Physical Society


The 0.99Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3-0.01Bi(Y1−xFex)O3 [PZT-BYF(x)] (x = 0.0 − 0.6) piezoelectric ceramics have been synthesized by using a modified conventional solid-state method. Initially, the perovskite Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) and the cubic-phase Bi(Y1−xFex)O3 [BYF(x)] were presynthesized and mixed to prepare PZT-BYF(x) ceramic composites. The effects of BYF(x) addition on the phase formation, microstructure, and piezoelectric/dielectric properties were measured as functions of sintering temperature. In addition to these measurements, the piezoelectric voltage constant (g33) and the piezoelectric transduction coefficient (d33 × g33) were measured in order to evaluate the essential criteria for an energy-harvesting material. For all the specimens, X-ray diffraction analyses showed a complete solid solution with co-existing tetragonal and rhombohedral perovskite phases. All the ceramics exhibited denser and finer microstructures, which produced a high relative density of ≥ 98%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations revealed that BYF(x) addition enhanced the sintering density through the formation of a liquid phase. The doping with BYF(x) in the PZT system was found to be effective for maintaining a high Curie temperature of around 377–390 °C. With increasing content of Fe2O3 in the BYF(x) system, the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties were significantly improved. At a sintering temperature of 1170 °C, the piezoelectric and the dielectric properties of PZT-BYF(x) ceramics showed desirable values; this resulted in a significantly higher transduction coefficient. The compositions of PZTBYF(0.1), PZT-BYF(0.2), and PZT-BYF(0.3) showed a considerably lower ε33T value, but higher d33 and kp values. Therefore, within the concentration limit of x = 0.1 to 0.3 moles of Fe2O3, the g33 and the d33 × g33 values were improved significantly (g33 > 53 × 10−3 Vm/N and d33 × g33 > 20000 m2/N). The maximum transduction coefficient of 20167 × 10−15 m2/N was obtained from the composition of PZT-BYF(0.3). The high values of g33 and d33 × g33 make these piezoelectric ceramics potential candidates for applications in energy-harvesting devices.