Effectiveness of the pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines against laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infections: population-based case-control study.

Research paper by Salaheddin S Mahmud, Gregory G Hammond, Lawrence L Elliott, Tim T Hilderman, Carol C Kurbis, Patricia P Caetano, Paul P Van Caeseele, Joel J Kettner, Magdy M Dawood

Indexed on: 03 Sep '11Published on: 03 Sep '11Published in: Vaccine


Excellent immune responses following 1 or 2 doses of the monovalent inactivated pandemic H1N1 vaccines have been documented, but the effectiveness of these vaccines against laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infections in the general population is not clear. We evaluated the effectiveness of the pandemic H1N1 and seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) used during the 2009 mass vaccination campaign in Manitoba (Canada) in preventing laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infections.A population-based case-control study using data from Cadham Provincial Laboratory (CPL) and the Manitoba Immunization Monitoring System (MIMS). All Manitoba residents ≥6 months of age who had a respiratory specimen tested at CPL for H1N1 were included in the study. Cases were individuals who tested positive for pandemic H1N1 influenza A by reverse transcriptase-PCR (N=1435). Controls were individuals who tested negative for both influenza A and B (N=2309). Information on receipt of TIV or H1N1 vaccine was obtained by record linkage with MIMS, the population-based province-wide immunization registry.Overall, the adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine was 86% (95%CI 75-93%) effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infections when vaccination occurred ≥14 days before testing. Effectiveness seemed lower among older (≥50 years) individuals [51% (-51 to 84%)] and among those with immunocompromising conditions [67% (-13 to 90%)]. There was also evidence that the H1N1 vaccine might be less effective among those who had received the 2009/10 TIV.The adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine used during Manitoba's H1N1 mass vaccination campaign was highly effective against laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 infection, especially among children and younger adults.