Indexed on: 26 Dec '12Published on: 26 Dec '12Published in: Food Chemistry
The effect of genotype (G), growing environment (E), and their interaction (G×E) on the antioxidant properties and chemical compositions were investigated using the flour samples of 10 wheat varieties grown in four different locations in Maryland. Lutein content of wheat flour ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 μg/g, and α-tocopherol ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 μg/g. Total carotenoids were primarily affected by E (45.7%), while G×E interaction had a larger effect on the level of total tocopherols (71.6%). E had the largest effect on antioxidant activity against oxygen, hydroxyl, and ABTS(·+) radicals. G had the least influence on the measured phytochemicals and antioxidant activity assays. Total carotenoids had a significant correlation with average low air temperature (r=0.359, p<0.01) as well as precipitation level (r=0.214, p<0.01). ABTS(·+) radical scavenging capacity had a positive correlation with average air temperature (r=0.705, p<0.01), while hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity had a negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.269. p<0.01). These results show that environment, genotype, and their interaction could influence the levels of lipophilic antioxidants and antioxidant activities of wheat flour.