Quantcast

Effect of additive and current mode on surface morphology of palladium films from a non-aqueous deep eutectic solution (DES)

Research paper by Reinhard Böck, Gloria Lanzinger, Renate Freudenberger, Thomas Mehner, Daniela Nickel, Ingolf Scharf, Thomas Lampke

Indexed on: 18 Aug '13Published on: 18 Aug '13Published in: Journal of Applied Electrochemistry



Abstract

Electrodeposition of palladium from a non-aqueous electrolyte solution [choline chloride/urea/palladium(II)chloride] has been carried out by direct and pulse current electroplating. In this study, the influence of an organic additive (nicotinic acid amide), current mode (direct current or pulse current deposition) and hydrodynamic on the surface morphology of electroplated palladium films was investigated. In order to determine the surface morphology and thickness of the electrodeposited palladium layers, a scanning electron microscope and an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscope were used. In addition, the cell voltage during the different electrodeposition experiments was recorded and analysed. The experimental results showed that the surface morphology of the palladium deposits could be remarkably affected either by addition of the additive or by applying pulse current. Pulse plating and the selected inhibitor mutually interfere with each other, causing changes in the microstructure of the palladium deposits (e.g. smoothening or forming of micro-cracks). It was possible to optimise the palladium deposit quality by applying pulse current or by addition of the appropriate inhibitor.