Indexed on: 01 Dec '12Published on: 01 Dec '12Published in: Leukemia & lymphoma
Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is an effective treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the timing of ASCT in the era of novel agents (lenalidomide, thalidomide, bortezomib) is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of patients with MM who received novel agent-based induction treatment and received first ASCT within 12 months of diagnosis (early ASCT, n = 102) or at a later date (late ASCT, n = 65). Median time to ASCT was 7.9 months vs. 17.7 months in early vs. late ASCT. The 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) from diagnosis was 90 and 63% vs. 82 and 63% in early and late ASCT, respectively (p = 0.45). Forty-one and 36 patients in the early and late ASCT groups have relapsed or progressed, with median time to relapse of 28 and 23 months (p = 0.055). On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of increased risk for progression were International Scoring System (ISS) stage III (p = 0.007), and less than a very good partial response (< VGPR) post-ASCT (p < 0.001). A factor predictive of worst outcome for OS was being on hemodialysis (p = 0.037). No superiority of one agent was seen. In summary, early or late ASCT is a viable option for patients with MM receiving induction treatment with novel targeted therapies.