Dry eye disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus; comparison of the tear osmolarity test with other common diagnostic tests: a diagnostic accuracy study using STARD standard.

Research paper by Laily L Najafi, Mojtaba M Malek, Ameneh Ebrahim AE Valojerdi, Mohammad E ME Khamseh, Hossein H Aghaei

Indexed on: 29 May '15Published on: 29 May '15Published in: Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders


To determine the diagnostic performance of tear osmolarity in diagnosis of dry eye disease by using tear lab osmolarity system in people with type 2 diabetes, and to compare it with common diagnostic tests already available in clinical practice.Two hundreds forty three people with type 2 diabetes were included. Tear osmolarity was measured with the tear osmolarity system. The 308 mOsm/L cutoff was used to diagnose dry eye disease. The following tests were also performed: Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Tear Film Break up Time (TFBUT), Schirmer I test, Rose Bengal and Fluorescein staining. The results of these tests were compared to the tear osmolarity measurement.The prevalence of dry eye disease detected by the tear osmolarity test was 27.7%. It was as follows for the other common diagnostic tests: OSDI (17.7%), Schirmer I test (33%), TFBUT (41%), Rose Bengal (11%), and Fluorescein staining (4%). Fluorescein staining had the highest specificity (97%). With the cutoff score >12, the positive likelihood ratio for the OSDI questionnaire was the highest (1.78). The sensitivity was poor for all common diagnostic tests. ROC curve analysis could not determine optimal cut offs for the common diagnostic tests.The available common diagnostic tests underestimate the presence of dry eye disease in people with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, they could not discriminate tear hyperosmolarity from normal. Tear osmolarity could be considered as the best single test for detection of dry eye disease in people with type2 diabetes.