Indexed on: 20 Sep '18Published on: 20 Sep '18Published in: Diabetologia
The aim of this study was to assess the potential dose-dependent effects of smoking on the risk of CHD, heart failure and stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The study included 4506 individuals with type 1 diabetes who were participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) study. Intensity of smoking was estimated by packs per day and cumulative smoking by pack-years. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of incident CHD, heart failure or stroke during follow-up. One pack per day significantly increased the risk of incident CHD in current smokers compared with never smokers (HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.15, 1.84]), after adjustment for age, sex, HbA, hypertension, duration of diabetes and BMI. The risk of CHD in former smokers was similar to the risk in never smokers. The risk of incident heart failure was 1.43 (95% CI 1.03, 1.97) in current smokers per one pack per day and 1.37 (95% CI 1.05, 1.77) in former smokers, while the risk of incident stroke was 1.70 (95% CI 1.26, 2.29) and 1.49 (95% CI 1.14, 1.93), respectively. After further adjustments for lipids, however, the difference in the risk of heart failure in current and former smokers was no longer significant. Cumulative smoking data were similar to smoking intensity data. There is a dose-dependent association between smoking and cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. In men in particular, the risk of incident stroke remains high even after smoking cessation and is increased in current and former smokers independently of other risk factors.