Indexed on: 15 Nov '05Published on: 15 Nov '05Published in: American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology
Dopamine increases lung fluid clearance. This is partly due to activation of basolateral Na-K-ATPase. However, activation of Na-K-ATPase by itself is unlikely to produce large changes in transepithelial transport. Therefore, we examined apical and basolateral dopamine's effect on apical, highly selective sodium channels [epithelial sodium channels (ENaC)] in monolayers of an alveolar type 2 cell line (L2). Dopamine increased channel open probability (P(o)) without changing the unitary current. The D(1) receptor blocker SCH-23390 blocked the dopamine effect, but the D(2) receptor blocker sulpiride did not. The dopamine-mediated increase in ENaC activity was not a secondary effect of dopamine stimulation of Na-K-ATPase, since ouabain applied to the basolateral surface to block the activity of Na-K-ATPase did not alter dopamine-mediated ENaC activity. Protein kinase A (PKA) was not responsible for dopamine's effect since a PKA inhibitor, H89, did not reduce dopamine's effect. However, cpt-2-O-Me-cAMP, which selectively binds and activates EPAC (exchange protein activated by cAMP) but not PKA, increased ENaC P(o). An Src inhibitor, PP2, and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor, LY-294002, blocked dopamine's effect on ENaC. In addition, an MEK blocker, U0126, an inhibitor of phospholipase A(2), and a protein phosphatase inhibitor also blocked the effect of dopamine on ENaC P(o). Finally, since the cAMP-EPAC-Rap1 pathway also activates DARPP32 (32-kDa dopamine response protein phosphatase), we confirmed that dopamine phosphorylates DARPP32, and okadaic acid, which blocks phosphatases (DARPP32), also blocks dopamine's effect. In summary, dopamine increases ENaC activity by a cAMP-mediated alternative signaling pathway involving EPAC and Rap1, signaling molecules usually associated with growth-factor-activated receptors.