Indexed on: 12 Dec '19Published on: 11 Dec '19Published in: International journal of environmental research and public health
We aimed to determine if nut consumption decreases mortality and/or the risk of cardiometabolic diseases based on updated meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies. An updated electronic search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Cochrane Library databases for original meta-analyses to investigate the effects of nut consumption on cardiometabolic disease in humans. Seven new meta-analyses were included in this updated review. Findings similar to our previous review were observed, showing that nut consumption significantly decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality (-19% to -25%; = 4), coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (-24% to -30%; = 3), stroke mortality (-17% to -18%; = 3), CVD incidence (-15% to -19 %; = 4), CHD [or coronary artery disease (CAD)] incidence (-17% to -34%; = 8), and stroke incidence (-10% to -11%; = 6) comparing high with low categories of nut consumption. Fasting glucose levels (0.08 to 0.15 mmol/L; = 6), total cholesterol (TC; 0.021 to 0.30 mmol/L; = 10), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 0.017 to 0.26 mmol/L; = 10) were significantly decreased with nut consumption compared with control diets. Body weight and blood pressure were not significantly affected by nut consumption. Nut consumption appears to exert a protective effect on cardiometabolic disease, possibly through improved concentrations of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL-C.