Background Chronotype manifestation often has a broad influence on sleep quality. One possible explanation for daytime impairments in evening types is the concept of “social jetlag”. Social jetlag is caused by an incompatibility between circadian preference and the socially accepted rhythm. This can be declared as a social stressor. Objective The association between chronotype, stress coping, and sleep quality was assessed in a pilot study. Materials and methods A total of 75 female adults aged 20–41 years participated in the study and completely answered all questions. Various questionnaires including sociodemographic data, information about sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), chronotype (morningness–eveningness questionnaire, MEQ), and stress coping (Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, SVF78) were applied. Results Heightened use of maladaptive coping strategies is associated with a reduction in sleep quality. Chronotypes did not differ in terms of sleep quality and the coping strategies used. Conclusion Maladaptive coping strategy use seems to have a negative influence on sleep quality. Preventive education in adaptive stress coping strategies and avoidance of maladaptive stress coping thus seems useful to reduce these adverse influences on sleep quality.