Indexed on: 14 Dec '18Published on: 14 Dec '18Published in: Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) may exert an important protective role by preventing the oxidative transformation of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively). The activity of both enzymes is influenced by lipidome and proteome of the lipoprotein carriers. T2DM typically presents significant changes in the molecular composition of the lipoprotein subclasses. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the interaction of PON1 and Lp-PLA2 with the subspecies of HDL, LDL, and other lipoproteins in T2DM. Serum levels of PON1-arylesterase and PON1-lactonase and Lp-PLA2 activities and lipoprotein subclasses were measured in 202 nondiabetic subjects (controls) and 92 T2DM outpatients. Arylesterase, but not lactonase or Lp-PLA2 activities, was inversely associated with TD2M after adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, and lipoprotein subclasses (odds ratio = 3.389, 95% confidence interval 1.069-14.756). Marked difference between controls and T2DM subjects emerged from the analyses of the associations of the three enzyme activities and lipoprotein subclasses. Arylesterase was independently related with large HDL-C and small intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C) in controls while, along with lactonase, it was related with small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C, all IDL-C subspecies, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in T2DM ( < 0.05 for all). Concerning Lp-PLA2, there were significant relationships with small LDL-C, large IDL-C, and VLDL-C only among T2DM subjects. Our study showed that T2DM subjects have lower levels of PON1-arylesterase compared to controls and that T2DM occurrence may coincide with a shift of PON1 and Lp-PLA2 towards the more proatherogenic lipoprotein subclasses. The possibility of a link between the two observed phenomena requires further investigations.