Indexed on: 05 Aug '18Published on: 05 Aug '18Published in: Pediatric Transplantation
We report a case series of histoplasmosis in KTx patients in a children's hospital in an endemic area. All KTx cases from January 1, 2002, to August 31, 2016, were reviewed to identify those with disseminated histoplasmosis. The attack rate of histoplasmosis among our KTx patients was 6.9 per 100 cases. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 16 years (11-18). Comorbidities included glomerulosclerosis (3), medullary cystic disease (1), and obstructive uropathy (2) and HIV (1). There were 5 deceased and 1 living-related donor transplants, and no patient had a history of rejection prior to histoplasmosis. Median time from transplant to histoplasmosis was 14.8 months (IQR 2.2-38.3) and 33% occurred in the first year after transplant. Urine and/or serum antigens were positive in all patients. They were either treated with amphotericin B and transitioned to an azole or received azole monotherapy. Most (83%) received chronic suppression with itraconazole. No patients died and relapse occurred in 1 patient after repeat transplant. KTx patients in endemic areas are at risk for disseminated histoplasmosis. Further study is needed to determine which factors portend the need for fungal prophylaxis in this subset of patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.