Quantcast

Displacement amplification method and apparatus for passive energy dissipation in seismic applications

Imported: 24 Feb '17 | Published: 06 Jan '04

Stefano Berton

USPTO - Utility Patents

Abstract

An apparatus and method of dissipating inter floor seismic energy within buildings and other large structures which are subject mechanical deformation in response to seismic activity, wind shear, vibration, and so forth. The present invention provides displacement amplification methods and apparatus which increase the dissipation of seismic energy that is coupled from the building under deformation to a seismic damper. By way of example, the displacement amplifier is exemplified in a number of embodiments that utilize mechanical lever arms, gear sets, and combination amplifier/dampers to amplify energy dissipation.

Description

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention will be more fully understood by reference to the following drawings which are for illustrative purposes only, and where like reference numbers denote like parts:

FIG. 1 is side schematic view of an embodiment of a lever-style displacement amplification apparatus according to the present invention installed in a gravity frame shown within a building.

FIG. 2 is a detailed partial view of the displacement amplification apparatus of FIG. 1 shown in the context of the beam portion of the building frame.

FIG. 3 is a side schematic view of the structure shown in FIG. 1, shown undergoing lateral deformation.

FIG. 4 is a detailed partial view of the displacement amplification apparatus of FIG. 1, shown in the context of the beam portion of the building frame in response to lateral displacement.

FIG. 5 is a side schematic view of an embodiment of a gear-style displacement amplification apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention shown installed in a building frame.

FIG. 6 is a detailed partial cutaway view of the displacement amplification apparatus of FIG.

5.

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of an alternative embodiment of the gear-style displacement amplification apparatus shown in FIG.

6.

FIG. 8 is a diagram depicting the response of a fluid viscous damper undergoing cycling load without a displacement amplification apparatus according to the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a diagram depicting the response of a fluid viscous damper undergoing cycling load with a displacement amplification apparatus according to the present invention.

FIG. 10 is a partial cutaway view of an embodiment of a gear-style displacement amplification apparatus according to the present invention with angled gear tracks.

FIG. 11 is a side schematic view of the gear-style displacement amplification apparatus of FIG. 10 shown installed in a building structure with a cross-brace.

FIG. 12 is a side schematic view of a damper beam employing the gear-style displacement amplification apparatus shown in FIG.

6.

FIG. 13 is a side schematic view of the damper beam of FIG. 12 shown within a building frame.

FIG. 14 is a top plan schematic view of a super-damper according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 15 is a perspective view of a turbo-damper according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 16 is an exploded view of gear and propeller mechanism employed in the turbo-damper shown in FIG.

15.

FIG. 17 is a side schematic view of a multi-level building structure employing an alternative embodiment of the lever-style displacement amplification apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 18 is a partial detail view of the displacement amplification apparatus employed in FIG. 17 shown in the context of a beam undergoing lateral displacement.

FIG. 19 is a detailed partial perspective view of the displacement amplification apparatus employed in FIG.

17.

FIG. 20 is a side schematic view of a lever-style displacement amplification apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention, shown configured for use within a bridge having an expansion joint.

FIG. 21 is a side schematic view of the displacement amplification apparatus of FIG. 10 shown installed in a wood frame shear wall.

FIG. 22 is a top plan view of an alternative embodiment of a super-damper according to the present invention.

Claims

1. An apparatus for placement within the gravity frame of a structure which amplifies inter story structural displacements to increase passive energy dissipation, comprising:

2. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein the mechanical displacement applied to the damping device is amplified by the ratio of the diameter of a larger gear coupled to the damping device in relation to the diameter of a smaller gear coupled to a linear coupling member subject to the relative displacement of the gravity frame relation to the position of the reaction frame, wherein said smaller gear is connected for substantially concentric rotation with said larger gear.

3. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein the coupling between the gears and the linear coupling members comprises a rack-pinion coupling mechanism.

4. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein said mechanical displacement amplifying means is combined with said damping device within a rotating damper, said rotating damper comprising:

5. An apparatus as recited in claim 4, wherein said coupling between said linear coupling member and said gear drive propeller is provided by a rack-pinion coupling mechanism.

6. An apparatus as recited in claim 4, wherein said linear coupling member is configured with multiple pinions for driving multiple gear-driven propellers.

7. An apparatus as recited in claim 6, wherein said multiple gear-driven propellers are configured for counter-rotation in close proximity to one another within said fluid filled housing.

8. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein said damping device comprises an energy dissipation device configured for damping mechanical movement.

9. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein said damping device comprises a fluid viscous damper.

10. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein said damping device comprises a friction damper.

11. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein said damping device comprises a viscous elastic damper.

12. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein said reaction frame comprises a triangular structure configured for positioning beneath a horizontal support of said gravity frame.

13. An apparatus as recited in claim 12, wherein said reaction frame further comprises a slidable coupling attached to said triangular structure which supports said horizontal support within said gravity frame and restricts motion therein to substantially lateral movement.

14. An apparatus as recited in claim 13, wherein said slidable coupling incorporates rollers configured to allow lateral displacement of said horizontal support.

15. An apparatus as recited in claim 12 wherein said triangular structure comprises a pair of legs rigidly having proximal ends attached to the base level and distal ends fixedly joined to one another to provide a support for said mechanical displacement amplifier.

16. An apparatus as recited in claim 12, wherein said damping device is mounted within said triangular structure.

17. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein said damping device is mounted within the gravity frame.

18. An apparatus as recited in claim 1, wherein said reaction frame comprises:

19. An apparatus for placement within a gravity frame of a structure which passively dissipates energy from structural displacements of said gravity frame, comprising:

20. An apparatus for placement within a gravity frame of a structure which passively dissipates energy from structural displacements of said gravity frame, comprising:

21. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein the coupling between the first gear and the linear coupling member is provided by rack and pinion coupling.

22. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein said mechanical displacement amplifier is combined with said damper assembly within a rotating damper, comprising:

23. An apparatus as recited in claim 22, wherein said coupling between said linear coupling member and said gear drive propeller is provided by a rack-pinion coupling.

24. An apparatus as recited in claim 22, wherein said linear coupling member is configured with multiple pinions for driving multiple gear-driven propellers.

25. An apparatus as recited in claim 24, wherein said multiple gear-driven propellers are configured for counter-rotation in close proximity to one another within said fluid filled housing.

26. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein said damper assembly provides energy dissipation to damp the mechanical distortions of the gravity frame in relation to the reaction frame.

27. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein said damper assembly comprises a fluid viscous damper.

28. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein said damper assembly comprises a friction damper.

29. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein said damper assembly comprises a viscous elastic damper.

30. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein said reaction frame comprises a triangular structure configured for positioning beneath a horizontal support of said gravity frame.

31. An apparatus as recited in claim 30, wherein said reaction frame further comprises a slidable coupling attached to said triangular structure which supports said horizontal support within said gravity frame end restricts motion therein to substantially lateral movements.

32. An apparatus as recited in claim 31, wherein said slidable coupling incorporates rollers configured to allow lateral displacements of said horizontal support.

33. An apparatus as recited in claim 30, wherein said triangular structure comprises a pair of legs rigidly having proximal ends attached to the base level and distal ends fixedly joined to one another to provide a support for said mechanical displacement amplifier.

34. An apparatus as recited in claim 30, wherein said damper assembly is mounted within said triangular structure.

35. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein said damper assembly is mounted within the gravity frame.

36. An apparatus as recited in claim 19 or 20, wherein said reaction frame comprises:

37. A seismic isolator configured for attachment between a rigid structure and a flexible structure to dissipate seismic energy, comprising:

38. A seismic isolator configured for attachment between a rigid structure and a flexible structure to dissipate seismic energy, comprising:

39. A seismic isolator as recited in claim 37 or 38, wherein the coupling between the gears and the linear coupling members is provided by rack-pinion coupling.

40. A seismic isolator as recited in claim 37 or 38, wherein the means for mechanically amplifying movement is combined with said damper within a rotating damper assembly, comprising:

41. A seismic isolator as recited in claim 40, wherein said coupling between said linear coupling member and said gear drive propeller is provided by a rack-pinion coupling.

42. A seismic isolator as recited in claim 41, wherein said third linear coupling member is configured with multiple pinions for driving multiple gear-driven propellers.

43. A seismic isolator as recited in claim 37 or 38, wherein said damper dissipates energy to reduce the motion of the flexible structure.

44. A seismic isolator as recited in claim 37 or 38, wherein said damper comprises a hydraulic damper.

45. A seismic isolator as recited in claim 37 or 38, wherein said damper comprises a friction damper.

46. A seismic isolator as recited in claim 37 or 38, wherein said damper comprises a viscous elastic damper.

47. In a seismic isolator configured for attachment within the frame of a civil structure to direct lateral displacement into a damper mechanism, the improvement comprising;

48. In a seismic isolator configured for attachment within the frame of a civil structure to direct lateral displacement into a damper mechanism the improvement comprising:

49. The improvement as recited in claim 47 or 48, further comprising: