Differential responses of protein kinase C substrates (MARCKS, neuromodulin, and neurogranin) phosphorylation to calmodulin and S100.

Research paper by F S FS Sheu, F L FL Huang, K P KP Huang

Indexed on: 10 Jan '95Published on: 10 Jan '95Published in: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics


Phosphorylation of three physiological substrates of protein kinase C (PKC), MARCKS, neuromodulin (Nm), and neurogranin (Ng), was analyzed to determine their relative efficacy as substrates of PKC alpha, beta, and gamma and sensitivities to inhibition by calmodulin (CaM) and S100. Comparison of the Vmax/Km of the phosphorylation of each individual substrate indicated the order of efficacy as PKC substrate was MARCKS > Nm > Ng. Phosphorylation of these proteins in a mixture by PKC beta and gamma was indistinguishable from that when each individual substrate was phosphorylated by these two isozymes. In contrast, the rates of PKC alpha-catalyzed phosphorylation of Nm and Ng in a mixture also containing MARCKS were significantly reduced as compared to that when Nm or Ng was individually phosphorylated by this isozyme. When these substrates were present in a mixture, both CaM and S100 inhibited the PKC-catalyzed phosphorylation of MARCKS to a higher degree than that of Nm or Ng. Protease-activated catalytic fragment of PKC (PKM) was used to determine the effects of Ca2+ and phospholipid on the CaM and S100-mediated inhibition of PKC substrate phosphorylation. CaM and S100 inhibited the PKM-catalyzed phosphorylation of MARCKS only in the presence of Ca2+ and addition of phosphatidylserine (PS)/dioleoylglycerol (DG) did not influence the inhibitory effect. Phosphorylation of Nm or Ng by PKM was inhibited by CaM to a higher degree in the absence than in the presence of Ca2+. S100 was ineffective in inhibiting the phosphorylation of Nm and Ng without Ca2+ and only poorly effective in the presence of Ca2+. The CaM-mediated inhibition of Nm or Ng phosphorylation by PKM was also not affected by PS/DG either with or without Ca2+. The results presented here demonstrate that MARCKS is a preferred substrate of PKC and its phosphorylation by PKC is most sensitive to inhibition by regulatory proteins such as CaM and S100.