Indexed on: 01 Jul '99Published on: 01 Jul '99Published in: Biochemistry
To identify the residues essential for interfacial binding and substrate binding of human pancreatic phospholipase A2 (hpPLA2), several ionic residues in the putative interfacial binding surface (R6E, K7E, K10E, and K116E) and substrate binding site (D53K and K56E) were mutated. Interfacial affinity of these mutants was measured using anionic polymerized liposomes, and their enzymatic activity was measured using various substrates including phospholipid monomers, zwitterionic and anionic micelles, and anionic polymerized mixed liposomes. Similar mutations (R6E, K10E, K56E, and K116E) were made to porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (ppPLA2), and the properties of mutants were measured by the same methods. Results indicate that hpPLA2 and ppPLA2 have similar interfacial binding mechanisms in which cationic residues in the amino terminus and Lys-116 in the carboxy terminus are involved in binding to anionic lipid surfaces. Small but definite differences between the two enzymes were observed in overall interfacial affinity and activity and the effects of the mutations on interfacial enzyme activity. The interfacial binding of hpPLA2 and ppPLA2 is distinct from that of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 in that Lys-56 is involved in the interfacial binding of the latter enzyme. The unique phospholipid headgroup specificity of hpPLA2 derives from the presence of Asp-53 in the substrate binding site. This residue appears to participate in stabilizing electrostatic interactions with the cationic ethanolamine headgroup, hence the phosphatidylethanolamine preference of hpPLA2. Taken together, these studies reveal the similarities and the differences in the mechanisms by which mammalian pancreatic phospholipases A2 interact with lipid aggregates and perform interfacial catalysis.