Indexed on: 02 Jul '10Published on: 02 Jul '10Published in: Molecular Breeding
Data mining of gene sequences available from various projects dealing with the development of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) can contribute to the discovery of new microsatellite markers. Our aim was to develop new microsatellite markers in hop isolated from an enriched cDNA library and from coding GenBank sequences and to test their suitability in hop diversity studies and for construction of a linkage map. In a set of 614 coding GenBank sequences, 72 containing microsatellites were found (11.7%); the most frequent were trinucleotide repeats (54.0%) followed by dinucleotide repeats (34.5%). Additionally, 11 sequences containing microsatellites were isolated from an enriched cDNA library. A total of 34 primer pairs were designed, 29 based on GenBank sequences and five on sequences from the cDNA enriched library. Twenty-seven (79.4%) coding microsatellites were successfully amplified and used in diversity and linkage mapping studies. Eleven primer pairs amplified 12 coding microsatellite loci suitable for mapping and were placed on female and male linkage maps. We were able to extend previous simple sequence repeat (SSR) female, male and integral maps by 38.8, 25.8 and 40.0 cM, respectively. In the diversity study, 36 diverse hop genotypes were analyzed. Twenty-four coding microsatellites were polymorphic, 17 showing co-dominant behavior and 7 primer pairs amplifying three or more bands in some hop genotypes. Altogether, 143 microsatellite DNA fragments were amplified and they revealed a clear separation of hop genotypes according to geographical region, use or breeding history. In addition, a discussion and comparison of results with other plant coding/EST SSR studies is presented. Our results showed that these microsatellite markers can enhance hop diversity and linkage mapping studies and are a comparable marker system to non-coding SSRs.