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Development of cloud point extraction using pH-sensitive hydrogel for preconcentration and determination of malachite green.

Research paper by Morteza M Bahram, Foroogh F Keshvari, Peyman P Najafi-Moghaddam

Indexed on: 06 Jul '11Published on: 06 Jul '11Published in: Talanta



Abstract

A novel and sensitive cloud point extraction procedure using pH-sensitive hydrogel was developed for preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of malachite green (MG). In this extraction method, appropriate amounts of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid), as a pH-sensitive hydrogel, and HCl were added respectively into the aqueous sample so a cloudy solution was formed. The cloudy phase consists of hydrogel particles distributed entirely into the aqueous phase. Organic or inorganic compounds having the potential to interact with polymer particles (chemical interaction or physical adsorption) could be extracted to cloudy phase. After centrifuging, these particles of hydrogel were sedimented in the bottom of sample tube. The sedimented hydrogel-rich phase was diluted with acetonitrile and its absorbance was measured at 617 nm (λ(max) of malachite green in hydrogel). Central composite design and response surface method were applied to design the experiments and optimize the experimental parameters such as, concentration of hydrogel and HCl, extraction time and salting out effect. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 1 × 10(-8)-5 × 10(-7)mol L(-1) malachite green with a correlation coefficient of 0.992. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 4.1 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). Relative standard deviation (RSD) for 7 replicate determinations of 10(-7) mol L(-1) malachite green was 3.03%. In this work, the concentration factor of 20 was reached. Also the improvement factor of the proposed method was 23. The advantages of this method are simplicity of operation, rapidity and low cost.