Development and Validation of the Chinese Death Metaphors Scale-Revised.

Research paper by Fang F Yin, Jie J Fang, Ningning N Zhou, Heyong H Shen, Yu Y He

Indexed on: 08 Oct '16Published on: 08 Oct '16Published in: Death studies


Chinese people tend to use metaphorical expressions and rhetorical figures to convey meanings and emotions, and they usually talk about death implicitly. The assessment of death metaphors and images can provide a better understanding of Chinese personal perceptions of death. This study aimed at modifying the Chinese Death Metaphors Scale (CDMS; Cheung, 2005 ) and establishing one which is more suitable for Chinese people. Thirty-one death metaphor statements in Chinese were created from items of CDMS and an open questionnaire study. The item pool was tested with 425 participants and Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors (Comfortable/Painful/Sorrowful/Empty), differing with the two-factor structure (Positive/Negative) of the original CDMS. On the basis of this, a 24-item Revised Chinese Death Metaphors Scale was generated. It was carried out to 473 participants together with Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) for Confirmatory factor analysis, which revealed an acceptable model fit: x(2)/df=4.05, GFI = .85, AGFI = .82, IFI = .90, NNFI = .90, CFI = .90, RMSEA = .08, all met the criteria standards for adequacy of fit. Construct validity, criterion-related validity with DAS and Composite Reliability were all acceptable and reasonable. The Chinese Death Metaphors Scale-Revised is satisfactory and reliable and more suitable than previous instruments for use with Chinese people.