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Development and validation of a self-assessment tool for albuminuria: results from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

Research paper by Paul P Muntner, Mark M Woodward, April P AP Carson, Suzanne E SE Judd, Emily B EB Levitan, Devin M DM Mann, William W McClellan, David G DG Warnock

Indexed on: 31 May '11Published on: 31 May '11Published in: American Journal of Kidney Diseases



Abstract

The prevalence of albuminuria in the general population is high, but awareness of it is low. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate a self-assessment tool that allows individuals to estimate their probability of having albuminuria.Cross-sectional study.The population-based Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study for model development and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 for model validation. US adults 45 years or older in the REGARDS Study (n = 19,697) and NHANES 1999-2004 (n = 7,168).Candidate items for the self-assessment tool were collected using a combination of interviewer- and self-administered questionnaires.Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin to urinary creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g in spot samples.8 items were included in the self-assessment tool (age, race, sex, current smoking, self-rated health, and self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, and stroke). These items provided a C statistic of 0.709 (95% CI, 0.699-0.720) and good model fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ(2)P = 0.49). In the external validation data set, the C statistic for discriminating individuals with and without albuminuria using the self-assessment tool was 0.714. Using a threshold of ≥10% probability of albuminuria from the self-assessment tool, 36% of US adults 45 years or older in NHANES 1999-2004 would test positive and be recommended for screening. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for albuminuria associated with a probability ≥10% were 66%, 68%, 23%, and 93%, respectively.Repeated urine samples were not available to assess the persistency of albuminuria.8 self-report items provide good discrimination for the probability of having albuminuria. This tool may encourage individuals with a high probability to request albuminuria screening.