Indexed on: 13 Jan '14Published on: 13 Jan '14Published in: Frontiers in Biology
The neuronal cytoskeleton not only provides the structural backbone of neurons, but also plays a fundamental role in maintaining neuronal functions. Dysregulation of neuronal architecture is evident in both injury and diseases of the central nervous system. These changes often result in the disruption of protein trafficking, loss of synapses and the death of neurons, ultimately impacting on signal transmission and manifesting in the disease phenotype. Furthermore, mutations in cytoskeletal proteins have been implicated in numerous diseases and, in some cases, identified as the cause of the disease, highlighting the critical role of the cytoskeleton in disease pathology. This review focuses on the role of cytoskeletal proteins in the pathology of mental disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and motor function deficits. In particular, we illustrate how cytoskeletal proteins can be directly linked to disease pathology and progression.