Indexed on: 25 Jan '17Published on: 25 Jan '17Published in: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
β-Lactamase-mediated resistance is a growing threat to the continued use of β-lactam antibiotics. The use of the β-lactam-based serine-β-lactamase (SBL) inhibitors clavulanic acid, sulbactam, tazobactam, and, more recently, the non-β-lactam inhibitor avibactam has extended the utility of β-lactams against bacterial infections demonstrating resistance via these enzymes. These molecules are, however, ineffective against the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), which catalyse their hydrolysis. To date, there are no clinically available metallo-β-lactamase inhibitors. Co-production of MBLs and SBLs in resistant infections is, thus, of major clinical concern. The development of 'dual-action' inhibitors, targeting both SBLs and MBLs, is of interest, but these are considered difficult to achieve due to the structural and mechanistic differences between the two enzyme classes. We recently reported evidence that cyclic boronates can inhibit both serine- and metallo-β-lactmases. Here we report that cyclic boronates are able to inhibit all four classes of β-lactamase, including the class A extended spectrum β-lactamase, CTX-M-15, the class C enzyme, AmpC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and class D OXA enzymes with carbapenem-hydrolysing capabilities. We demonstrate that cyclic boronates can potentiate the use of β-lactams against Gram-negative clinical isolates expressing a variety of β-lactamases. Comparison of a crystal structure of a CTX-M-15:cyclic boronate complex with structures of cyclic boronates complexed with other β-lactamases reveals remarkable conservation of the small molecule binding mode, supporting our proposal that these molecules work by mimicking the common tetrahedral anionic intermediate present in both serine- and metallo-β-lactamase catalysis.