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Current scenario of cryptococcosis and antifungal susceptibility pattern in India: a cause for reappraisal.

Research paper by Malini Rajinder MR Capoor, Piyali P Mandal, Monorama M Deb, Pushpa P Aggarwal, Uma U Banerjee

Indexed on: 11 Apr '08Published on: 11 Apr '08Published in: Mycoses



Abstract

This study analysed the spectrum, antifungal susceptibility pattern, clinical course and molecular epidemiology of cryptococcosis. Four hundred and thirty-nine samples obtained from 378 meningitis patients were processed by standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole and amphotericin B for the isolates was tested by broth micro dilution and by E-strip method. Molecular analysis by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR of eight isolates was performed using M13 primer. Cryptococcosis was diagnosed in 35 patients [HIV-1 seropositive (19) and apparently immunocompetent (16)]. Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype A and D) was the predominant isolate on phenotypic identification. Three C. neoformans var. gattii were isolated from HIV-1 seropositive (2) and apparently immunocompetent (1) patients. MIC 90 for amphotericin B and fluconazole were 1 and 8 mug ml(-1) respectively. On RAPD-PCR, less diversity was seen among Indian isolates. AIDS remains the single most important risk factor for cryptococcosis. Rising MIC of the available induction and maintenance drugs is of grave concern. The DNA typing technique showed less diversity among Indian strains. Routine surveillance and application of molecular typing methods are crucial to know the baseline and existing pattern of cryptococcosis.

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