Cryogenic liquids, nanoparticles, and microencapsulation.

Research paper by Troy T Purvis, Jason M JM Vaughn, True L TL Rogers, Xiaoxia X Chen, Kirk A KA Overhoff, Prapasri P Sinswat, Jiahui J Hu, Jason T JT McConville, Keith P KP Johnston, Robert O RO Williams

Indexed on: 04 Jul '06Published on: 04 Jul '06Published in: International Journal of Pharmaceutics


The biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) is used to group pharmaceutical actives depending upon the solubility and permeability characteristics of the drug. BCS class II compounds are poorly soluble but highly permeable, exhibiting bioavailability that is limited by dissolution. The dissolution rate of BCS class II drug substances may be accelerated by enhancing the wetting of the bulk powder and by reducing the primary particle size of the drug to increase the surface area. These goals may be achieved by nucleating drug particles from solution in the presence of stabilizing excipients. In the spray freezing into liquid (SFL) process, a drug containing solution is atomized and frozen rapidly to engineer porous amorphous drug/excipient particles with high surface areas and dissolution rates. Aqueous suspensions of nanostructured particles may be produced from organic solutions by evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS). The suspensions may be dried by lyophilization. The particle size and morphology may be controlled by the type and level of stabilizers. In vivo studies have shown increased bioavailability of a wide variety of drugs particles formed by SFL or EPAS. For both processes, increased serum levels of danazol (DAN) were observed in mice relative to bulk DAN and the commercial product, Danocrine. Orally dosed itraconazole (ITZ) compositions, formed by SFL, produce higher serum levels of the drug compared to the commercial product, Sporanox oral solution. Additionally, nebulized SFL processed ITZ particles suspended in normal saline have been dosed via the pulmonary route and led to extended survival times for mice inoculated with Aspergillis flavus. SFL and EPAS processes produce amorphous drug particles with increased wetting and dissolution rates, which will subsequently supersaturate biological fluids in vivo, resulting in increased drug bioavailability and efficacy.