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Craniofacial and occlusal development in 2.5-year-old children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

Research paper by Saara S Markkanen, Pekka P Niemi, Markus M Rautiainen, Outi O Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Sari-Leena SL Himanen, Anna-Liisa AL Satomaa, Timo T Peltomäki

Indexed on: 31 May '19Published on: 30 Mar '19Published in: European journal of orthodontics



Abstract

Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with a range of changes in craniofacial and occlusal development. There is, however, little knowledge of how early in life these changes can be found. The aim of the present study was to determine whether changes in dental arch morphology, occlusion, facial profile, tonsil size, breathing habit or body mass index (BMI) can already be found among 2.5-year-old children with OSAS. Fifty-two children were recruited to the study. Of these, OSAS was diagnosed in 9 children and 18 children did not snore in polysomnography. These two groups were subsequently compared when evaluating polysomnographic, otorhinolaryngological and dental variables. Children with OSAS had narrower inter canine width than non-snoring children (P = 0.032). Furthermore, children with OSAS had larger adenoid size with respect to the nasopharyngeal volume (P = 0.020) and more tendency to mouth breathing (P = 0.002). No statistically significant differences were found when comparing palatine tonsil size, occlusal characteristics, soft tissue profile measurements or BMI. The limitation of the study is the small sample size. Children with OSAS had narrower upper inter canine width than non-snoring children at the age of 2.5 years. Larger adenoid size and mouth breathing tendency were also more common among children with OSAS. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine if other changes in craniofacial and occlusal development can be found in this age group. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.