Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy
Ustekinumab was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Crohn's disease. In this analysis, we aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of ustekinumab, infliximab, or adalimumab for the treatment of moderate-severe Crohn's disease in patients who failed conventional therapy (i.e., corticosteroids and immunomodulators) but were naïve to tumor necrosis factor antagonists (i.e., biologic drugs). Cost-effectiveness analysis using a hybrid model structure (decision tree and Markov model) MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A decision tree simulated biologic induction, and a Markov model simulated biologic and conventional therapy maintenance. Cycle length was 2 weeks with a discounted 5-year time horizon and a limited U.S. societal perspective in the base case; results from a payer perspective are also reported. Transition probabilities, direct costs, indirect costs, and utilities were obtained from the literature. To measure relative treatment value (i.e., order of treatment cost-effectiveness), net monetary benefits were reported for a $150,000 willingness-to-pay threshold per quality-adjusted life-year in the base case. Infliximab dominated both adalimumab and ustekinumab, with a net monetary benefit (NMB) of $9,943 and $29,798, respectively, in the base case. Adalimumab dominated ustekinumab, with an NMB of $19,855. All biologics yielded similar quality-adjusted life-years (~3.5), whereas costs varied substantially ($50,510, $54,985, and $72,921 for infliximab, adalimumab, and ustekinumab, respectively). The payer perspective, alternate time horizons, and scenario analyses consistently showed infliximab dominance. One-way, threshold, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results with respect to all parameters. Although biosimilars were not explicitly modeled as comparators, one-way sensitivity analysis showed that drug acquisition costs could alter relative treatment value but would have to be varied by at least 50%. For moderate-severe Crohn's disease, infliximab yields slightly more NMBs compared with both adalimumab and ustekinumab. Additional clinical (e.g., empiric dosing, biologic cycling) and quality-of-life (e.g., lost productivity, disutility of home injections) research is needed to allow for model frameworks and parameters that more accurately reflect the nuances of Crohn's disease treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.