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Concomitant ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy and stenting is an effective treatment for tandem carotid artery lesions.

Research paper by Jocelyn M JM Beach, Shashank S Sharma, Jim J Bena, Jeanwan J Kang, Daniel G DG Clair, Christopher J CJ Smolock

Indexed on: 06 Dec '20Published on: 15 Sep '19Published in: Journal of Vascular Surgery



Abstract

Data regarding the treatment of tandem carotid artery lesions at the bifurcation and ipsilateral, proximal common carotid artery (CCA) are limited. It has been suggested that concomitant treatment with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and proximal ipsilateral carotid artery stenting confers a high risk of stroke and death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of this hybrid procedure at a single institution. A retrospective chart review was performed including patients who underwent CEA + ipsilateral carotid artery stenting for treatment of atherosclerotic carotid artery disease between December 2007 and April 2017. Primary endpoints were postoperative myocardial infarction, neurologic event, and perioperative mortality. Twenty-two patients (15 male [68%]) underwent CEA + ipsilateral carotid artery stenting with a mean follow-up of 67 ± 77 months. The mean age was 70.0 ± 6.1 years old, all with a prior smoking history (eight current smokers [64%]). Twelve patients (55%) were treated for symptomatic disease and three had a prior ipsilateral CEA (one also with CAS). Computed tomographic angiography imaging was performed preoperatively in 21 patients (95%). CEA was performed first in 18 patients (82%) followed by ipsilateral carotid artery stenting. CEA was performed with a patch in 20 and eversion endarterectomy in two patients. Ipsilateral CCA was stented in 21 patients (96%) and one innominate was stented in a patient with a right CEA. Additional endovascular interventions were performed in three patients: 1 innominate stent, 1 distal ipsilateral internal carotid artery stent, and 1 right subclavian artery stent. All proximal stents were placed with sheath access through the endarterectomy patch in 12 (55%), CCA in 7 (32%), and through the arteriotomy before patching in 3 (14%). Distal internal carotid artery clamping was performed in 18 (90%, available 20) of patients before ipsilateral carotid artery stenting. All proximal lesions were successfully treated endovascularly with no open conversion. One dissection was created and treated effectively with stenting. One perioperative stroke (4.5%) occurred in a patient treated for symptomatic disease, 1 postoperative myocardial infarction (4.5%), and 2 patients (9.1%) with cranial nerve injuries. There was one patient who expired within 30 days, shortly after discharge for unknown reasons. The mean length of stay was 2.6 ± 2.0 days. In appropriately selected patients, concomitant CEA and ipsilateral carotid artery stenting can be safely performed in high-risk patients with a low risk of myocardial infarction, neurologic events, and perioperative mortality when careful surgical technique is used, using direct carotid access, and distal carotid clamping for cerebral protection before stenting. Copyright © 2019 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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