Indexed on: 24 Feb '16Published on: 24 Feb '16Published in: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can acquire resistance to rifampin (RIF) through mutations in the rpoB gene. This is usually accompanied by a fitness cost, which, however, can be mitigated by secondary mutations in the rpoA or rpoC gene. This study aimed to identify rpoA and rpoC mutations in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates in northern China in order to clarify their role in the transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). The study collection included 332 RIF-resistant and 178 RIF-susceptible isolates. The majority of isolates belonged to the Beijing genotype (95.3%, 486/510 isolates), and no mutation was found in rpoA or rpoC of the non-Beijing genotype strains. Among the Beijing genotype strains, 27.8% (89/320) of RIF-resistant isolates harbored nonsynonymous mutations in the rpoA (n = 6) or rpoC (n = 83) gene. The proportion of rpoC mutations was significantly higher in new cases (P = 0.023) and in strains with the rpoB S531L mutation (P < 0.001). In addition, multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains with rpoC mutations were significantly associated with 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat clustering (P = 0.016). In summary, we believe that these findings indirectly suggest an epistatic interaction of particular mutations related to RIF resistance and strain fitness and, consequently, the role of such mutations in the spread of MDR M. tuberculosis strains.