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Comparison of the in vitro anthelmintic effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia raddiana.

Research paper by Geneviève G Zabré, Adama A Kaboré, Balé B Bayala, Luciana M LM Katiki, Lívio Martins LM Costa-Júnior, Hamidou H HH Tamboura, Adrien M G AMG Belem, Adibe L AL Abdalla, Vincent V Niderkorn, Hervé H Hoste, Helder H Louvandini

Indexed on: 28 Nov '17Published on: 28 Nov '17Published in: Parasite (Paris, France)



Abstract

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a major threat to small ruminant rearing in the Sahel area, where farmers traditionally use bioactive plants to control these worms, including Acacia nilotica and Acacia raddiana. The main aim of this study was to screen the potential anthelmintic properties of aqueous and acetone extracts of leaves of these two plants based on three in vitro assays: (1) the egg hatch inhibition assay (EHA); (2) the larvae exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) using Haemonchus contortus as a model; and (3) an adult mortality test (AMT) applied on Caenorhabditis elegans. For the EHA, only A. raddiana was effective with IC50 = 1.58 mg/mL for aqueous extract, and IC50 = 0.58 mg/mL for acetonic extract. For the LEIA, all extracts inhibited the exsheathment of larvae compared to the controls, and the aqueous extract of A. nilotica was more larvicidal with IC50 = 0.195 mg/mL. In general, all responses to the substances were dose-dependent and were significantly different from the control group (p < 0.05). For the AMT, the extracts of the two Acacia species were effective but A. raddiana showed greater efficacy with 100% mortality at 2.5 mg/mL and LC50 = 0.84 mg/mL (acetonic extract). The addition of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) to the extracts suggested that tannins were responsible for blocking egg eclosion and inducing adult mortality but were not responsible for exsheathment inhibition. These results suggest that the leaves of these Acacia species possess ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro against H. contortus, and adulticidal effects against C. elegans.

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