Comparison of Intraperitoneal Nebulization of Ropivacaine with Ropivacaine-Fentanyl Combination for Pain Control Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Research paper by Nidhi N Bhatia, Swati S Mehta, Vikas V Saini, Babita B Ghai, Lileshwar L Kaman

Indexed on: 03 Feb '18Published on: 03 Feb '18Published in: Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A


Intraperitoneal local anesthetic nebulization is a new and novel technique for providing pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We compared the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal ropivacaine-fentanyl nebulization with ropivacaine nebulization alone for providing pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 75 American Society of Anesthesiologists I/II patients, 18-60 years old, scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups of 25 patients each to receive intraperitoneal nebulization using normal saline (group I), 30 mg of 0.75% ropivacaine (group II), or 30 mg of 0.75% ropivacaine with 100 μg fentanyl (group III). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain during rest and movement, shoulder pain, nausea or vomiting, and sedation were recorded for 48 hours postoperatively. Time to providing first rescue analgesia and 48-hour tramadol consumption were also noted.Significantly greater number of patients in the placebo group had overall VAS >30 both at rest and during movement. Greater number of these patients also complained of postoperative shoulder pain and had significantly more tramadol consumption in the postoperative period. Furthermore, patients in the ropivacaine-fentanyl group demanded first dose of rescue analgesic significantly later than the other two groups.Nebulization results in better and uniform dispersion of analgesic drug intraperitoneally. Following laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgeries, ropivacaine nebulization of intraperitoneal cavity, with or without fentanyl, provides highly effective postoperative analgesia, with decreased incidence of shoulder pain. Furthermore, addition of fentanyl to ropivacaine prolongs the duration of analgesia.