Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts.

Research paper by Katarina K Bukara, Ivana I Drvenica, Vesna V Ilić, Ana A Stančić, Danijela D Mišić, Borislav B Vasić, Radoš R Gajić, Dušan D Vučetić, Filip F Kiekens, Branko B Bugarski

Indexed on: 25 Oct '16Published on: 25 Oct '16Published in: Journal of biotechnology


The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process.

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