Comparative Studies of the Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Cashew Leaf, Bark and Fruits Extracts

Research paper by John O. Onuh, Gabriel Idoko, Peter Yusufu, Felicia Onuh

Indexed on: 23 Nov '17Published on: 21 Sep '17Published in: American Journal of Food and Nutrition


Extracts of the leaf, stem bark and fruit of cashew plants were investigated to determine their phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Cashew leaves, stem barks and fruits of the Brazilian Jumbo variety were processed, extracted and analyzed for their phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that the phytochemical contents varied significantly between the sample extracts. Carotenoids content of cashew extracts are 88.86, 125.93 and 100.33 mg/g for the leaf, bark and fruit respectively. The stem bark extract showed significantly highest tannin content (2.01 mg/g) compared to the cashew fruit extract (1.56 mg/g) and cashew leaf extract (1.19 mg/g). Total phenolic content of the cashew plant parts varied significantly from 103.92 – 983 .23 mg/g sample of the extract with the leaf extract having significantly lowest value while the fruit had the highest value. Cashew fruit extract exhibited significantly highest percentage DPPH scavenging activity at all concentrations. There was a positive correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of cashew extracts suggesting that the phenolic content may directly influence the antioxidant activities. Extracts of cashew leaves and stem barks exhibited appreciable inhibition on all human pathogens screened compared to the fruit extract which was only active against salmonella typhi. Cashew extracts could therefore be used as a potential source of ingredients in the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods for the control, management and treatment of health disorders.