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This board is owned by Matt Holland, NWAS LKS, Librarian. Contact Matt.Holland@nwas.nhs.uk


Hosts recent articles from research based journals. Pinboard started in September 2016.


Efficacy of prehospital administration of tranexamic acid in trauma patients: A meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials

Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018 Source:The American Journal of Emergency Medicine Author(s): Ayman El-Menyar, Brijesh Sathian, Mohammed Asim, Rifat Latifi, Hassan Al-Thani Objective Antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA) has a potential clinical benefit for in-hospital patients with severe bleeding but its effectiveness in pre-hospital settings remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether pre-hospital administration of TXA compared to placebo improve patients' outcomes' Methods PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, and clinicaltrials.gov and Google scholar databases were searched for a retrospective, prospective and randomized (RCT) or quasi-RCT studies that assessed the effect of prehospital administration of TXA versus placebo on the outcomes of trauma patients with significant hemorrhage. The main outcomes of interest were 24 hour and 30-day mortality and in-hospital thromboembolic complications. Two authors independently abstracted the data using a data collection form. Results from different studies were pooled for the analysis, when appropriate. Results Out of 92 references identified through the search, two analytical studies met the inclusion criteria. The effect of TXA on 24-hour mortality had a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.85), 30-day mortality OR of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.56–1.32), and thromboembolic events OR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27–2.07). Conclusion Prehospital TXA appears to reduce early mortality in trauma patients. The pooled analysis also shows a trend toward lower 30-day mortality and reduced risk of thromboembolic events. Additional randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the significance of these trends.

Pub.: 18 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

National characteristics of Emergency Department visits by patients with cancer in the United States

Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018 Source:The American Journal of Emergency Medicine Author(s): Joann Hsu, John P. Donnelly, Justin Xavier Moore, Karen Meneses, Grant Williams, Henry E. Wang Purpose The Emergency Department (ED) is an important venue for the care of patients with cancer. We sought to describe the national characteristics of ED visits by patients with cancer in the United States. Methods We performed an analysis of 2012–2014 ED visit data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). We included adult (age ≥ 18 years) ED patients, stratified by history of cancer. Using the NHAMCS survey design and weighting variables, we estimated the annual number of adult ED visits by patients with cancer. We compared demographics, clinical characteristics, ED resource utilization, and disposition of cancer vs. non-cancer patients. Results There were an estimated 104,836,398 annual ED visits. Patients with cancer accounted for an estimated 3,879,665 (95% CI: 3,416,435–4,342,895) annual ED visits. Compared with other ED patients, those with cancer were older (mean 64.8 vs. 45.4 years), more likely to arrive by Emergency Medical Services (28.0 vs. 16.9%), and experienced longer lengths of ED stay (mean 4.9 vs. 3.8 h). Over 65% of ED patients with cancer underwent radiologic imaging. Patients with cancer almost twice as likely to undergo CT scanning; four times more likely to present with sepsis; twice as likely to present with thrombosis, and three times more likely to be admitted to the hospital than non-cancer patients. Conclusions Patients with cancer comprise nearly 4 million ED visits annually. The findings highlight the important role of the ED in cancer care and need for addressing acute care conditions in patients with cancer.

Pub.: 18 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Etiologies of altered mental status in patients with presumed ethanol intoxication

Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018 Source:The American Journal of Emergency Medicine Author(s): Marc L. Martel, Lauren R. Klein, Andrew J. Lichtenheld, Allan M. Kerandi, Brian E. Driver, Jon B. Cole Background Altered mental status is a commonly evaluated problem in the ED. Ethanol intoxication is common, and prehospital history may bias emergency physicians to suspect this as the cause of altered mental status. Quantitative ethanol measurement can rapidly confirm the diagnosis, or if negative, prompt further evaluation. Our objective was to identify the etiologies of altered mental status in ED patients initially presumed to be intoxicated with ethanol but found to have negative quantitative ethanol levels. Methods This was a 5-year (2012–2016) electronic medical record review of ED patients presenting with altered mental status. Patients were included if they presented with presumed ethanol intoxication and had an initial ethanol concentration of zero. Etiologies of altered mental status were categorized into medical, traumatic, psychiatric, and drug-related causes. Results 29,322 patients presented during the study period with presumed alcohol intoxication, 1875 patients had negative ethanol levels. The etiology of altered mental status was due to illicit substances in 1337 patients (71%), psychiatric causes in 354 patients (19%), medical causes in 166 patients (9%) and trauma in 18 patients (1%). A total of 179 patients (10%) were admitted to the hospital; 19 patients (1%) to the ICU. Conclusions The presumptive diagnosis of ethanol intoxication in patients presenting to the ED with altered mental status was inaccurate in 5% of patients. The etiology of altered mental status was serious and required hospitalization in 10% of the cohort. Rapid assessment of quantitative ethanol levels should be performed, breathalyzers may be preferred over serum testing.

Pub.: 18 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Pre-hospital ambulance care of patients following a suspected seizure: A cross sectional study

Abstract: Publication date: April 2018 Source:Seizure, Volume 57 Author(s): Jon M. Dickson, Zahid B. Asghar, A. Niroshan Siriwardena Purpose We aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients presenting to the ambulance service with suspected seizures, the costs of managing these patients and the factors which predicted transport to hospital. Methods We employed a cross-sectional design using routine clinical data from a UK regional ambulance service. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of transport to hospital from ambulance response times, demographics, clinical (physiological) findings and treatments. Results There were 177,715 emergency incidents recorded in 2011/12 of which 2.9% (5139/177,715) were classified as seizures by ambulance call handlers and 2.7% (4884/177,715) by paramedics on the scene. Suspected seizures were the seventh most common call type. The annual cost of managing these incidents was £890,148. Clinical and physiological variables were normal for most patients. 59.3% (2894/4884) of patients were transported to hospital. 1/4884 (0.02%) patient died. Administration of diazepam, insertion of an airway and pyrexia perfectly predicted transport to hospital, tachycardia had a modest association, but other variables were only weak predictors of transport to hospital. Conclusions This study shows that most patients after a suspected seizure are not acutely unwell but nevertheless most patients are transported to hospital. Further research is required to determine which factors are important in decisions to transport to hospital and to create evidence-based tools to help paramedics identify patients who could be safely managed without transport to hospital.

Pub.: 18 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Outcomes of Emergency Medical Service Usage in Severe Road Traffic Injury during Thai Holidays.

Abstract: Thailand has the highest mortality from road traffic injury (RTI) in the world. There are usually higher incident rates of RTI in Thailand over long holidays such as New Year and Songkran. To our knowledge, there have been no studies that describe the impact of emergency medical service (EMS) utilization by RTI patients in Thailand. We sought to determine the outcomes of EMS utilization in severe RTIs during the holidays. We conducted a retrospective review study by using a nationwide registry that collected RTI data from all hospitals in Thailand during the New Year holidays in 2008-2015 and Songkran holidays in 2008-2014. A severe RTI patient was defined as one who was admitted, transferred to another hospital, or who died at the emergency department (ED) or during referral. We excluded patients who died at the scene, those who were not transported to the ED, and those who were discharged from the ED. Outcomes associated with EMS utilization were identified by using multiple logistic regression and adjusted by using factors related to injury severity. Overall we included 100,905 patients in the final analysis; 39,761 severe RTI patients (39.40%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 95% CI [39.10%-39.71%]) used EMS transportation to hospitals. Severe RTI patients transported by EMS had a significantly higher mortality rate in the ED and during referral than that those who were not (2.00% vs. 0.78%,< 0.001). Moreover, EMS use was significantly associated with increased mortality rate in the first 24 hours of admission to hospitals (1.38% for EMS use vs. 0.57% for no EMS use,< 0.001). EMS utilization was a significant predictor of mortality in EDs and during referral (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.19; 95% CI [1.88-2.55]), and mortality in the first 24 hours of admission (adjusted OR 2.31; 95% CI [1.95-2.73]). In this cohort, severe RTI patients transported by EMS had a significantly higher mortality rate than those who went to hospitals using private vehicles during these holidays.

Pub.: 22 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Variations in Cardiac Arrest Regionalization in California.

Abstract: The development of cardiac arrest centers and regionalization of systems of care may improve survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This survey of the local EMS agencies (LEMSA) in California was intended to determine current practices regarding the treatment and routing of OHCA patients and the extent to which EMS systems have regionalized OHCA care across California. We surveyed all of the 33 LEMSA in California regarding the treatment and routing of OHCA patients according to the current recommendations for OHCA management. Two counties, representing 29% of the California population, have formally regionalized cardiac arrest care. Twenty of the remaining LEMSA have specific regionalization protocols to direct all OHCA patients with return of spontaneous circulation to designated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-capable hospitals, representing another 36% of the population. There is large variation in LEMSA ability to influence inhospital care. Only 14 agencies (36%), representing 44% of the population, have access to hospital outcome data, including survival to hospital discharge and cerebral performance category scores. Regionalized care of OHCA is established in two of 33 California LEMSA, providing access to approximately one-third of California residents. Many other LEMSA direct OHCA patients to PCI-capable hospitals for primary PCI and targeted temperature management, but there is limited regional coordination and system quality improvement. Only one-third of LEMSA have access to hospital data for patient outcomes.

Pub.: 22 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

An Effective Risk Minimization Strategy Applied to an Outdoor Music Festival: A Multi-Agency Approach.

Abstract: Specific Event Identifiers a. Event type: Outdoor music festival. b. Event onset date: December 3, 2016. c. Location of event: Regatta Point, Commonwealth Park. d. Geographical coordinates: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia (-35.289002, 149.131957, 600m). e. Dates and times of observation in latitude, longitude, and elevation: December 3, 2016, 11:00-23:00. f. Response type: Event medical support. Abstract Introduction Young adult patrons are vulnerable to risk-taking behavior, including drug taking, at outdoor music festivals. Therefore, the aim of this field report is to discuss the on-site medical response during a music festival, and subsequently highlight observed strategies aimed at minimizing substance abuse harm. The observed outdoor music festival was held in Canberra (Australian Capital Territory [ACT], Australia) during the early summer of 2016, with an attendance of 23,008 patrons. First aid and on-site medical treatment data were gained from the relevant treatment area and service. The integrated first aid service provided support to 292 patients. Final analysis consisted of 286 patients' records, with 119 (41.6%) males and 167 (58.4%) females. Results from this report indicated that drug intoxication was an observed event issue, with 15 (5.1%) treated on site and 13 emergency department (ED) presentations, primarily related to trauma or medical conditions requiring further diagnostics. This report details an important public health need, which could be met by providing a coordinated approach, including a robust on-site medical service, accepting intrinsic risk-taking behavior. This may include on-site drug-checking, providing reliable information on drug content with associated education. Luther M , Gardiner F , Lenson S , Caldicott D , Harris R , Sabet R , Malloy M , Perkins J . An effective risk minimization strategy applied to an outdoor music festival: a multi-agency approach.

Pub.: 22 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Prehospital Lactate Predicts Need for Resuscitative Care in Non-hypotensive Trauma Patients.

Abstract: The prehospital decision of whether to triage a patient to a trauma center can be difficult. Traditional decision rules are based heavily on vital sign abnormalities, which are insensitive in predicting severe injury. Prehospital lactate (PLac) measurement could better inform the triage decision. PLac's predictive value has previously been demonstrated in hypotensive trauma patients but not in a broader population of normotensive trauma patients transported by an advanced life support (ALS) unit. This was a secondary analysis from a prospective cohort study of all trauma patients transported by ALS units over a 14-month period. We included patients who received intravenous access and were transported to a Level I trauma center. Patients with a prehospital systolic blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg were excluded. We measured PLac's ability to predict the need for resuscitative care (RC) and compared it to that of the shock index (SI). The need for RC was defined as either death in the emergency department (ED), disposition to surgical intervention within six hours of ED arrival, or receipt of five units of blood within six hours. We calculated the risk associated with categories of PLac. Among 314 normotensive trauma patients, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for PLac predicting need for RC was 0.716, which did not differ from that for SI (0.631) (p=0.125). PLac ≥ 2.5 mmol/L had a sensitivity of 74.6% and a specificity of 53.4%. The odds ratio for need for RC associated with a 1-mmol/L increase in PLac was 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.40 - 4.12]) for PLac < 2.5 mmol/L; 2.27 (1.10 - 4.68) for PLac from 2.5 to 4.0 mmol/L; and 1.26 (1.05 - 1.50) for PLac ≥ 4 mmol/L. PLac was predictive of need for RC among normotensive trauma patients. It was no more predictive than SI, but it has certain advantages and disadvantages compared to SI and could still be useful. Prospective validation of existing triage decision rules augmented by PLac should be investigated.

Pub.: 22 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Should pre-hospital resuscitative thoracotomy be reserved only for penetrating chest trauma?

Abstract: The indications for pre-hospital resuscitative thoracotomy (PHRT) remain undefined. The aim of this paper is to explore the variation in practice for PHRT in the UK, and review the published literature.MEDLINE and PUBMED search engines were used to identify all relevant articles and 22 UK Air Ambulance Services were sent an electronic questionnaire to assess their PHRT practice.Four European publications report PHRT survival rates of 9.7, 18.3, 10.3 and 3.0% in 31, 71, 39 and 33 patients, respectively. All patients sustained penetrating chest injury. Six case reports also detail survivors of PHRT, again all had sustained penetrating thoracic injury. One Japanese paper presents 34 cases of PHRT following blunt trauma, of which 26.4% survived to the intensive therapy unit but none survived to discharge. A UK population reports a single survivor of PHRT following blunt trauma but the case details remain unpublished. Ten (45%) air ambulance services responded, each service reported different indications for PHRT. All perform PHRT for penetrating chest trauma, however, length of allowed pre-procedure down time varied, ranging from 10 to 20 min. Seventy percent perform PHRT for blunt traumatic cardiac arrest, a procedure which is likely to require aggressive concurrent circulatory support, despite this only 5/10 services carry pre-hospital blood products.Current indications for PHRT vary amongst different geographical locations, across the UK, and worldwide. Survivors are likely to have sustained penetrating chest injury with short down time. There is only one published survivor of PHRT following blunt trauma, despite this, PHRT is still being performed in the UK for this indication.

Pub.: 21 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

Elder Abuse Identification in the Prehospital Setting: An Examination of State Emergency Medical Services Protocols.

Abstract: To describe statewide emergency medical service (EMS) protocols relating to identification, management, and reporting of elder abuse in the prehospital setting. Cross-sectional analysis. Statewide EMS protocols in the United States. Publicly available statewide EMS protocols identified from published literature, http://EMSprotocols.org, and each state's public health website. Protocols were reviewed to determine whether elder abuse was mentioned, elder abuse was defined, potential indicators of elder abuse were listed, management of older adults experiencing abuse was described, and instructions regarding reporting were provided. EMS protocols for child abuse were reviewed in the same manner for the purpose of comparison. Of the 35 publicly available statewide EMS protocols, only 14 (40.0%) mention elder abuse. Of protocols that mention elder abuse, 6 (42.9%) define elder abuse, 10 (71.4%) describe indicators of elder abuse, 8 (57.1%) provide instruction regarding management, and 12 (85.7%) provide instruction regarding reporting. Almost twice as many states met each of these metrics for child abuse. Statewide EMS protocols for elder abuse vary in regard to identification, management, and reporting, with the majority of states having no content on this subject. Expansion and standardization of protocols may increase the identification of elder abuse. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

Pub.: 23 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

[Palliative medicine in emergency medical services].

Abstract: The scope of emergency calls for emergency medical services staffed by an emergency physician (EMS-EP) includes calls to patients with life-limiting diseases. Symptom exacerbation as well as psychosocial overburdening of caring relatives are the most frequent reasons for activation of an EMS-EP. Pain crises, acute dyspnea, massive bleeding and/or an impending or overt cardiac arrest are the most frequent symptom exacerbations. Under the conditions of a prehospital emergency physician mission, particular challenges are the evaluation of the overall situation, the prognosis and the presumed will of the patient. Is the goal of treatment still rehabilitative or is the patient in a pre-terminal, terminal or even final condition? Is the goal of treatment the same for the patient, the relatives and the physician? Is it necessary to make the goal of treatment a subject of discussion? It is not unusual that the task of the EMS-EP is to deliver bad news to the relatives, such as the impending death of the patient or even that death has already occurred. Even though it may no longer be required to save a life, the EMS-EP can significantly influence the bereavement of the relatives. Saving life might not be paramount for the EMS when responding to emergency calls from palliative care patients. Nevertheless, it is an important field of activity for the EMS-EP since the burden of symptoms can be relieved and dying with dignity can be made possible.

Pub.: 23 Mar '18, Pinned: 23 Mar '18

The Association between Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Settings and Chest Injuries: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed in out-of-hospital settings for chest injuries in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This retrospective, observational study was conducted in an emergency critical care medical center in Japan. Non-traumatic OHCA patients transferred to the hospital from April 2013 through August 2016 were analyzed. The outcome was defined by chest injuries related to CPR, which is composite of rib fractures, sternal fractures, and pneumothoraces. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent risk factors for chest injuries related to CPR. The threshold of out-of-hospital CPR duration that increased risk of chest injuries was also assessed. A total of 472 patients were identified, of whom 233 patients sustained chest injuries. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that the independent risk factors for chest injuries were age and out-of-hospital CPR duration (age: AOR=1.06 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.07]; out-of-hospital CPR duration: AOR=1.03 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05]). In-hospital CPR duration was not an independent risk factor for chest injuries. When the duration of out-of-hospital CPR extended over 15 minutes, the likelihood of chest injuries increased; however, this association was not statistically significant. Long duration of out-of-hospital CPR was an independent risk factor for chest injuries, possibly due to the difficulty of maintaining adequate quality of CPR. Further investigations to assess the efficacy of alternative CPR devices are expected in cases requiring long transportation times. Takayama W , Koguchi H , Endo A , Otomo Y . The association between cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital settings and chest injuries: a retrospective observational study.

Pub.: 09 Mar '18, Pinned: 13 Mar '18

Prehospital Airway Procedures Performed in Trauma Patients by Ground Forces in Afghanistan.

Abstract: Airway management is of critical importance in combat trauma patients. Airway compromise is the second leading cause of potentially survivable death on the battlefield and accounts for approximately 1 in 10 preventable deaths. Reports from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars indicate 4-7% incidence of airway interventions on casualties transported to combat hospitals. The goal of this study was to describe airway management in the prehospital combat setting and document airway devices used on the battlefield. This study is a retrospective review of casualties that required a prehospital life-saving airway intervention during combat operations in Afghanistan. We obtained data from the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) that was linked to the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) for outcome data for the time period between January 2013 and September 2014. 705 total trauma patients were included, 16.9% required a prehospital airway management procedure. There were 132 total airway procedures performed, including 83 (63.4%) endotracheal intubations and 26 (19.8%) nasopharyngeal airway placements. Combat medics were involved in 48 (36.4%) of airway cases and medical officers in 73 (55.3%). Most (94.2%) patients underwent airway procedures due to battle injuries caused by explosion or gunshot wounds. Casualties requiring airway management were more severely injured and less likely to survive as indicated by injury severity score, responsiveness level, Glascow coma score, and outcome. Percentages of airway interventions more than tripled from previous reports from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These changes are significant and further study is needed to determine the causes. Casualties requiring airway interventions sustained more severe injuries and experienced lower survival than patients who did not undergo an airway procedure, findings suggested in previous reports. Level III, prognostic and epidemiological.

Pub.: 10 Mar '18, Pinned: 13 Mar '18

A self-completed questionnaire study of attitudes and perceptions of paramedic and prehospital practitioners towards acute seizure care in Northern Ireland.

Abstract: Paramedics are increasingly expected to take on wider roles in the management of epilepsy in the community by making nonconveyance decisions after patients have had seizures. Studies have identified barriers to the successful implementation of this clinical role. We sought to determine levels of confidence, training, perceived barriers, and self-identified learning needs and methods to address these needs regarding seizure management. A questionnaire was developed by consensus and administered to 63 paramedic and prehospital clinicians at various mandatory training days occurring at the central headquarters of the regional ambulance service in Northern Ireland. Participants had no foreknowledge of the questionnaire, which was self-completed and returned immediately. A 75% return rate was obtained after 63 questionnaires were distributed. Paramedics had a mean of 11.5years of experiences, and 49% had treated 1-10 seizures in the last year. The Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee guideline on seizure management is the most commonly utilized clinical guideline (100%). All could recall formal training on seizures in their qualification course. They identified a need to develop their knowledge in certain aspects of drug management and seizure subtype identification, including nonepileptic attack disorder (NEAD). Seventy percent of paramedics had a limited understanding of NEAD. Overall, paramedics rated their confidence as higher in drug treatment and the process of managing a seizure but rated their confidence lower in recognizing different seizure types as well as making nonconveyance decisions. The two factors which were cited as instilling high confidence included clinical experience and good use of provided protocols. Other barriers identified included lack of access to intramuscular midazolam, poor information availability in the prehospital setting, and a lack of a feedback mechanism to ensure follow-up. The methods by which learning needs would be addressed included tutorials, e-Learning, and simulation, with 30% preferring a combination of these methods. We identified that the paramedic workforce feels a reasonable to high level of confidence in the management of acute seizures. However, there are areas where they experience less confidence including making nonconveyance decisions and the identification of nontonic-clonic seizure subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pub.: 12 Mar '18, Pinned: 12 Mar '18

The dead and the dying - a difficult part of EMS transport: A Swiss cross-sectional study.

Abstract: Most deaths occur in the pre-hospital setting, whereas mortality in the emergency department (ED) is low (<1%). However, our clinical impression is that some patients are being transported to hospital in devastating conditions with no likelihood of survival, but demanding extensive hospital resources. The decision on whether to transport a dying person to hospital or not is a difficult task for emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. As there is little epidemiological data about these patients, this paper aims to describe this special population. Retrospective cross-sectional study on adult patients transported by ground ambulance to the ED of a Swiss university hospital, who died during their stay in the ED between January 2008 and December 2012. Data was collected on the basis of ambulance report forms and discharge summaries of the ED. One hundred and sixty-one patients were analysed. Most deaths were due to cardiovascular diseases (43%). Only 9% of patients died of trauma. The median age was 70 years (IQR 56-81 years) and 70% (n = 112) were men. Trauma patients were significantly younger (median age 55 years, p<0.001). The overall mortality rate was 0.9% for all patients transported by EMS to the ED. About one third of all patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from bystanders (n = 53). The most common electrocardiogram (ECG) findings were asystole (n = 57) and pulseless electrical activity (n = 91). Fifty percent (n = 64) of the resuscitated patients were defibrillated. Three quarters (n = 115, 72%) of all patients were intubated on site. The mechanical chest compression device Lucas™2 was mainly used in cases of cardiovascular or uncertain cause of death and did not reduce the operating time on site. The low ED mortality rate of 0.9% shows that only a few dying patients are transported to hospital. However, transport to hospital has to be carefully evaluated, especially for elderly patients with asystole or PEA due to medical conditions. The low CPR rate from bystanders demonstrates that public CPR training should be promoted further. The use of Lucas™2 did not reduce the operating time on site. For further investigations, comparison with survivors would be needed.

Pub.: 28 Feb '18, Pinned: 06 Mar '18

Helicopter vs. ground transportation of patients bound for primary percutaneous coronary intervention

Abstract: Implementation of the first Danish helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) was associated with reduced time from first medical contact to treatment at a specialized centre for patients with suspected ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to investigate effects of HEMS on mortality and labour market affiliation in patients admitted for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).In this prospective observational study, we included patients with suspected STEMI within the region covered by the HEMS from January 1, 2010, to April 30, 2013, transported by either HEMS or ground emergency medical services (GEMS) to the regional PCI centre. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality.Among the 384 HEMS and 1220 GEMS patients, time from diagnostic ECG to PCI centre arrival was lower with HEMS (median 71 min vs. 78 min with GEMS; P = 0.004). Thirty-day mortality was 5.0% and 6.2%, respectively (adjusted OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.44–1.51, P = 0.52. Involuntary early retirement rates were 0.62 (HEMS) and 0.94 (GEMS) per 100 PYR (adjusted IRR = 0.68, 0.15–3.23, P = 0.63). The proportion of patients on social transfer payments longer than half of the follow-up time was 22.1% (HEMS) vs. 21.2% (adjusted OR = 1.10, 0.64–1.90, P = 0.73).In an observational study of patients with suspected STEMI in eastern Denmark, no significant beneficial effect of helicopter transport could be detected on mortality, premature labour market exit or work ability. Only a study with random allocation to one system vs. another, along with a large sample size, will allow determination of superiority of helicopter transport.

Pub.: 27 Feb '18, Pinned: 06 Mar '18

Review article: Managing medical emergencies in rural Australia: A systematic review of the training needs

Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the training needs of doctors managing emergencies in rural and remote Australia. A systematic review of Australian articles was performed using MEDLINE (OVID) and INFORMIT online databases from 1990 to 2016. The search terms included ‘Rural Health’, ‘Emergency Medicine’, ‘Emergency Medical Services’, ‘Education, Medical, Continuing’ and ‘Family Practice’. Only peer-reviewed articles, available in full-text that focussed on the training needs of rural doctors were reviewed. Data was extracted using pre-defined fields such as date of data collection, number of participants, characteristics of participants, location and study findings. A total of eight studies published from 1998 to 2006 were found to be suitable for inclusion in the analysis. Six studies cited the results of self-reported questionnaires and surveys, one used a telephone questionnaire on a hypothetical patient and one utilised a theoretical examination. The studies found a significant proportion of participants wanted more emergency training. Junior rural doctors were found to have deficiencies in knowledge about stroke. Emergency skills doctors wanted more training including: emergency ultrasound, paediatric/neonatal procedures and cricothyroidotomy. However, many of the studies were performed by training providers that may benefit from deficient results. Given that the data was over 10 years old and that advances have been made in knowledge, training opportunities and technology, the implications for current training needs of rural doctors in Australia could not be accurately assessed. Thus there is a need for further research to identify current training needs.

Pub.: 22 Feb '18, Pinned: 06 Mar '18

How many patients could benefit from REBOA in prehospital care? A retrospective study of patients rescued by the doctors of the Paris fire brigade.

Abstract: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a technique to control haemorrhage by placing a retrograde catheter in an artery and inflating a balloon at its tip. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the proportion of injured people who could potentially have benefited from this technique prior to hospitalisation, including on the scene or during transport. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients with trauma registered in the Paris Fire Brigade emergency medical system between 1 January and 31 December 2014. Inclusion criteria included all patients over 18 years of age with bleeding of supposedly abdominal and/or pelvic and/or junctional origin, uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock or cardiac arrest with attempted resuscitation. During this study period, a total of 1159 patients with trauma (3.2%) would have been eligible to undergo REBOA. Death on scene rate was 83.8% (n=31) and six patients had a beating heart when they arrived at the hospital. Ten out of the 37 patients had spontaneous circulatory activity. Among them, four people died on the scene or during transport. Thirty-six out of 37 patients were intubated, one benefited from the use of a haemostatic dressing and one benefited from a tourniquet. REBOA can be seen as an effective non-surgical solution to ensure complete haemostasis during the prehospital setting. When comparing the high mortality rate following haemorrhage with the REBOA's rare side effects, the risk-benefit balance is positive. Given that 3% of all patients with trauma based on this study would have been eligible for REBOA, we believe that this intervention should be available in the prehospital setting. The results of this study will be used: educational models for REBOA balloon placement using training manikins, with an ultimate aim to undertake a prospective feasibility study in the prehospital setting. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Pub.: 01 Mar '18, Pinned: 06 Mar '18

Promoting collaboration in emergency medicine

Abstract: Collaborative practice between paramedics and medical staff is essential for ensuring the safe handover of patients. Handover of care is a critical time in the patient journey, when effective communication and collaborative practice are central to promoting patient safety and to avoiding medical error. To encourage effective collaboration between paramedic and medical students, an innovative, practice-based simulation exercise, known as interprofessional clinical skills (ICS) was developed at the University of East Anglia, UK. Emphasising patient safety, effective handover of care and teamwork, within the context of emergency medicine, the ICS promotes collaborative practice amongst health care students through the use of high- and low-fidelity simulation, human factors and values-based practice. A total of 123 undergraduate students from paramedic (60) and medical backgrounds (63) took part in the ICS. Evaluation data were collected from all students through the completion of an internal feedback/satisfaction questionnaire with 13 statements and one open-ended comment box.The response rate for the questionnaire was 100%. Of the 123 students from paramedic and medical disciplines, 99% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement ‘I enjoyed this session’. Students also felt that the ICS helped them to build mutual respect (98%), enhance understanding of roles (94%) and develop as collaborative practitioners (92%).Collaborative practice between paramedics and medical staff is essentialThe ICS is an innovative, enjoyable and meaningful intervention for promoting interprofessional collaborative practice between paramedic and medical students in a simulated practice setting. It encourages students to gain core training in clinical skills and patient safety, within a safe, supervised environment.

Pub.: 23 Feb '18, Pinned: 06 Mar '18

Prehospital Interventions Performed on Pediatric Trauma Patients in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Abstract: United States (US) and coalition military medical units deployed to combat zones frequently encounter pediatric trauma patients. Pediatric patients may present unique challenges due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics and most military prehospital providers lack pediatric-specific training. A minimal amount of data exists to illuminate the prehospital care of pediatric patients in this environment. We describe the prehospital care of pediatric trauma patients in Iraq and Afghanistan. We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric subjects admitted to US and Coalition fixed-facility hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016. Subjects were grouped by age: <1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-17 years. We focused our analysis on interventions related to trauma resuscitation. Of 42,790 encounters in the DODTR during the study period, 3,439 (8.0%) were aged <18 years. Most subjects were in the 5-9 age group (33.1%), male (77.1%), located in Afghanistan (67.8%), injured by explosives (43.1%). Most subjects survived to hospital discharge (90.2%). The most frequently performed interventions were tourniquet placement (6.6%), intubation (6.1%), supplemental oxygen (11.7%), IV access (24.8%), IV fluids (13.3%), IO access (5.1%), and hypothermia prevention (44.5%). The most frequently administered medications were antibiotics (6.2%) and opioids (15.0%). Most procedural and medication interventions occurred in subjects injured by explosives (43.1%) and gunshot wounds (22.1%). Pediatric subjects comprised over 1 in 13 casualties treated in the joint theaters with the majority injured by explosives. Vascular access and hypothermia prevention interventions were the most frequently performed procedures. Key words: prehospital; pediatric; combat; trauma; military.

Pub.: 02 Mar '18, Pinned: 06 Mar '18