Combined Neurotrauma Models: Experimental Models Combining Traumatic Brain Injury and Secondary Insults.

Research paper by Dennis W DW Simon, Vincent M VM Vagni, Patrick M PM Kochanek, Robert S B RS Clark

Indexed on: 09 Sep '16Published on: 09 Sep '16Published in: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)


Patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently present with concomitant injuries that may cause secondary brain injury and impact outcomes. Animal models have been developed that combine contemporary models of TBI with a secondary neurologic insult such as hypoxia, shock, long bone fracture, and radiation exposure. Combined injury models may be particularly useful when modeling treatment strategies and in efforts to map basic research to a heterogeneous patient population. Here, we review these models and their collective contribution to the literature on TBI. In addition, we provide protocols and notes for two well-characterized models of TBI plus hemorrhagic shock.