Indexed on: 15 Mar '16Published on: 29 Nov '15Published in: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control
Heletz sandstone (Israel) reactivity is studied by means of CO2-rich brine percolation experiments and modeling. Experiments are performed at in situ temperature and pressure conditions with two distinctly different injection flow rates and for two different brine compositions: the genuine Heletz brine and a similar brine but in equilibrium with gypsum. The Heletz sandstone is composed of quartz, dolomite, ankerite, K-feldspar, clay minerals and minor amounts of gypsum and pyrite. The main reaction is the dissolution of the carbonates which is fastest for the highest flow rate injection and for the genuine Heletz brine. Permeability increases during the five percolation experiments, regardless of flow rate and brine type. This increase in permeability is associated to a decrease in porosity during the gypsum-equilibrated brine experiments due to gypsum precipitation. The precipitation of secondary minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and smectite) is mainly controlled by the dissolution of K-feldspar and largest at low flow rate injection, indicating that these precipitation processes are diffusion-controlled and localized in immobile zones where favorable chemical micro-environments exist. These processes are quantified by means of a reactive transport model. These results indicated that the CO2 injection at the Heletz site should trigger both permeability increase in interface between brine and CO2, which may extend over a large extension and where mixing processes are very active, especially near the well under intermittent injection conditions.