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Cluster analysis of preoperative echocardiographic findings and outcomes following left ventricular device implantation.

Research paper by Paul C PC Tang, Jonathan W JW Haft, Matthew A MA Romano, Abbas A Bitar, Reema R Hasan, Maryse M Palardy, Xiaoting X Wu, Keith K Aaronson, Francis D FD Pagani

Indexed on: 12 Feb '19Published on: 12 Feb '19Published in: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery



Abstract

To investigate whether preoperative echocardiography findings determine postoperative continuous-flow left ventricular assist device outcomes. From January 2003 to June 2017, 490 patients received a durable, continuous-flow left ventricular assist device. Two-step clustering of parameters including heart rate and preoperative echocardiographic findings (ie, left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction, right ventricular [RV] function, aortic insufficiency, mitral regurgitation [MR], tricuspid regurgitation [TR]) was performed and identified 5 distinct clusters associated with LV failure: group 1: moderate right ventricular dysfunction (RVD), severe MR and mild TR (n = 110); group 2: severe RVD, severe MR and TR (n = 64); group 3: moderate RVD and severe aortic insufficiency (n = 16); group 4: mild RVD and mild valvular pathology (n = 163); and group 5: moderate-severe RVD and mild valvular pathology (n = 137). Silhouette measure of cohesion and separation demonstrated satisfactory separation at 0.6. Group 2 had the greatest Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support Level 1 (25%, P = .010), preoperative right atrial pressure (11 ± 5 mm Hg, P < .001), incidence of postoperative right ventricular failure (RVF; 20%, P = .001), delayed closure of the sternum (61%, P = .002), postoperative permanent dialysis (6%, P = .04), rate of tricuspid valve repair (n = 52; 81%, P < .001), and lowest RV stroke work index (489 ± 228 cc mm Hg/m/beat, P < .001). RVF in groups 1, 3, 4, and 5 was 6%, 0%, 4%, and 9%, respectively. No differences in incidence of heart transplantation (P = .400) or survival (P = .535) were found. Severe TR predicted RVF in those with moderate-severe preoperative RVD (P = .001, odds ratio 3.9). Clustering demonstrated the importance of preoperative TR in predicting RVF. Combined severe LV and RV failure with severe MR and TR portends the worse prognosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.