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Clinical presentation and imaging findings in patients with pulsatile tinnitus and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence.

Research paper by Ameet K AK Grewal, Han Y HY Kim, Richard H RH Comstock, Frank F Berkowitz, Hung Jeffrey HJ Kim, Ann K AK Jay

Indexed on: 06 Sep '13Published on: 06 Sep '13Published in: Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology



Abstract

Sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence (SSDD) is an increasingly recognized venous cause for pulsatile tinnitus (PT). SSDD is amenable to surgical/endovascular intervention. We aim to understand the clinical and imaging features of patients with PT due to SSDD.Retrospective CT study and chart review.Tertiary-care, academic center.Cohort 1: 200 consecutive unique temporal bone CT were blindly reviewed for anatomic findings associated with PT. Cohort 2: 61 patients with PT were evaluated for otologic manifestations.All patients underwent a temporal bone CT for evaluation of PT. Clinical information was gathered using electronic medical records.Otologic symptoms and physical findings (including body mass index (BMI), mastoid/neck bruits) were analyzed. Temporal bone CT scans were evaluated for the presence of SSDD and other possible causes of PT.Cohort 1: 35 cases of SSDD were identified (18%); 10 (29%) true diverticula; and 25 (71%) dehiscence. Sixty-six percent were right sided. Twelve patients had PT (34%). Patients with SSDD are more likely to have PT (p = 0.003). A significant association between right SSDD and PT was found (p = 0.001). Cohort 2: 15 out of 61 patients had PT and CT-confirmed SSDD. All were female subjects; average age was 45 years (26-73 yr). Radiologic evaluation revealed 10 SSDD cases on the right (66.7%), 2 on the left (13.3%%), and 3 bilateral (20%). Sensorineural hearing loss was seen in 8 (53%), aural fullness in 12 (80%). Average BMI was 32.2 (21.0-59.82), and 4 (26%) had audible mastoid bruits.SSDD may be the most common identifiable cause for PT from venous origin and is potentially treatable. Temporal bone CT scans should be included in a complete evaluation of PT.