Indexed on: 04 May '13Published on: 04 May '13Published in: Infection
This retrospective study was performed in order to investigate the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of viridans streptococcal bacteremia (VSB) in febrile neutropenic children in the context of the increase in incidence and antibiotic resistance of VSB.We conducted this study among neutropenic children with underlying hematology/oncology diseases who were diagnosed with VSB at a single institution from April 2009 to June 2012. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the children as well as antibiotic susceptibility of the causative viridans streptococci were evaluated.Fifty-seven episodes of VSB were diagnosed in 50 children. Severe complications occurred in four children (7.0%), and a death of one child (1.8%) was attributable to VSB. Acute myeloid leukemia was the most common underlying disease (70.2% of all cases), and 71.9% of all cases received chemotherapy including high-dose cytarabine. VSB occurred at a median of 13 days (range 8-21 days) after the beginning of chemotherapy, and fever lasted for a median of 4 days (range 1-21 days). The C-reactive protein level significantly increased within a week after the occurrence of VSB (p < 0.001) and the maximum C-reactive protein level showed a positive correlation with fever duration (r = 0.362, p = 0.007). Second blood cultures were done before the use of glycopeptides in 33 children, and negative results were observed in 30 children (90.9%). Susceptibilities to cefotaxime, cefepime, and vancomycin were 58.9, 69.1, and 100%, respectively.Severe complications of VSB in neutropenic febrile children were rare. We suggest glycopeptide use according to the results of blood culture and antibiotic susceptibility tests based on the susceptibility to cefepime and the microbiologic response to empirical antibiotic treatment not including glycopeptides in this study.