Clinical and genetic determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during treatment initiation.

Research paper by Inna Y IY Gong, Ute I UI Schwarz, Natalie N Crown, George K GK Dresser, Alejandro A Lazo-Langner, GuangYong G Zou, Dan M DM Roden, C Michael CM Stein, Marc M Rodger, Philip S PS Wells, Richard B RB Kim, Rommel G RG Tirona

Indexed on: 25 Nov '11Published on: 25 Nov '11Published in: PloS one


Variable warfarin response during treatment initiation poses a significant challenge to providing optimal anticoagulation therapy. We investigated the determinants of initial warfarin response in a cohort of 167 patients. During the first nine days of treatment with pharmacogenetics-guided dosing, S-warfarin plasma levels and international normalized ratio were obtained to serve as inputs to a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model. Individual PK (S-warfarin clearance) and PD (I(max)) parameter values were estimated. Regression analysis demonstrated that CYP2C9 genotype, kidney function, and gender were independent determinants of S-warfarin clearance. The values for I(max) were dependent on VKORC1 and CYP4F2 genotypes, vitamin K status (as measured by plasma concentrations of proteins induced by vitamin K absence, PIVKA-II) and weight. Importantly, indication for warfarin was a major independent determinant of I(max) during initiation, where PD sensitivity was greater in atrial fibrillation than venous thromboembolism. To demonstrate the utility of the global PK-PD model, we compared the predicted initial anticoagulation responses with previously established warfarin dosing algorithms. These insights and modeling approaches have application to personalized warfarin therapy.