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Cisplatinum nephrotoxicity in oncology therapeutics: retrospective review of patients treated between 2005 and 2012.

Research paper by Morgan M Finkel, Adam A Goldstein, Yael Y Steinberg, Linda L Granowetter, Howard H Trachtman

Indexed on: 31 Aug '14Published on: 31 Aug '14Published in: Pediatric Nephrology



Abstract

Cisplatinum (CP) is associated with acute kidney injury. The aim of this study was to define the spectrum of CP-induced nephrotoxicity in current practice.A single-center, retrospective chart review was performed on children who received CP for treatment of a malignancy at the Hassenfeld Children's Center for Blood and Cancer Disorders of NYU Langone Medical Center between 2005 and 2012. Patients were considered to have nephrotoxicity if they had: (1) a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥30 % or (2) a decline in serum magnesium of ≥0.2 meq/L or (3) a decline in serum potassium of ≥0.2 meq/L. Thirty-two patients (mean age 8.0 ± 7.0 years) were included in this review, of whom 21 had a brain tumor (BT) and 11 had an osteosarcoma (OS); 31 (97 %) of the patients had a disturbance in renal function. The mean reduction in eGFR, serum magnesium and potassium was 37 ± 17, 30 ± 16 and 25 ± 14 %, respectively. The decline in eGFR, hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia was persistent in 38, 60 and 40 % of cases, respectively, through the short-term follow-up period. No patients required dialysis.Nearly all patients receiving CP in current care experience modest glomerular and tubular injury. The abnormalities persist in 40-60 % of cases during the short-term recovery period after CP treatment.