Indexed on: 27 Jun '08Published on: 27 Jun '08Published in: Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
Anti-endothelial cell antibody (AECA) can cause hyperacute rejection and immediate graft loss after renal transplantation; however, its prevalence and significance during acute rejection are unknown. Previous studies suggested that AECA may be detected in recipients with acute vascular rejection (AVR).We retrospectively analyzed 653 cadaveric renal transplant recipients; circulating AECA was positive in 13 of 47 cases of AVR; another two cases of hyperacute rejection also had detectable AECA. Twenty-six cases of AVR without circulating AECA were selected as controls.AECA-positive AVR usually occurred within 1 yr after transplantation and mostly was resistant to steroid treatment. Compared with the control group, the AECA-positive group was associated with a significantly lower 1-yr graft survival rate (46.7 versus 80.5%; P = 0.038), and more patients had histologic interstitial plasma cell infiltration (53.8 versus 11.5%; P = 0.005). More patients with AECA-positive AVR experienced another one or more episodes of acute rejection during 1 yr of follow-up (75.0 versus 13.0%; P = 0.003). AECA-positive AVR with C4d deposition in peri-tubular capillaries had the worst outcome in this cohort, and it accounted for 38.5% graft loss in AVR. AECA in turn accounted for 71.4% of graft loss in C4d(+) AVR.Circulating AECA is associated with poor outcome in renal allograft recipients with acute rejection and should be monitored regularly.