Indexed on: 22 Feb '11Published on: 22 Feb '11Published in: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Recruitment and adhesion of exogenous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) or endogenously mobilized bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNCs) to the sites of ischemia is an important focus of cell therapy. This study sought to determine whether cilostazol enhances integrin-dependent homing of progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiments with human umbilical cord blood (HUCB)-derived EPCs, cilostazol (10 μM) stimulated up-regulation of integrins β1, α1, and αv as well as 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (100 μM; 8-pCPT, Epac activator). Cilostazol and 8-pCPT significantly enhanced migration and adhesion of HUCB EPCs to a fibronectin-coated plate and endothelial cells, which were inhibited by KT5720 (PKA inhibitor, 1 μM) and GGTI-298 (Rap1 inhibitor, 20 μM). Cilostazol stimulated Epac1 expression and up-regulated the active Rap1, as did 8-pCPT, and they were suppressed by KT5720 (P < 0.001) and GGTI-298 (P < 0.001). 8-pCPT increased p-CREB expression and stimulated PKA activity, which was inhibited by KT5720, Rp-cAMPS, and GGTI-298. In addition, N(6)-benzoyl-cAMP (100 μM) increased Rap1 GTP expression, as did 8-pCPT; they were suppressed by Rp-cAMPS and GGTI-298. The in vivo experiments showed that cilostazol (30 mg/kg/day, orally for 7 days) significantly enhanced the integrin β1 expression in the molecular layer and up-regulated homing of BM MNCs to the injured molecular layer with increased capillary density in mouse brain subjected to transient forebrain ischemia (n = 6, P < 0.001). In conclusion, cilostazol stimulated integrin expression and enhanced migration and adhesion of progenitor cells through cooperative activation of PKA and Epac signals; such activity may improve the efficacy of cell therapy for ischemic disease.