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Chest computed tomography findings in HIV-infected individuals in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

Research paper by Emily E Clausen, Catherine C Wittman, Matthew M Gingo, Khaled K Fernainy, Carl C Fuhrman, Cathy C Kessinger, Renee R Weinman, Deborah D McMahon, Joseph J Leader, Alison A Morris

Indexed on: 20 Nov '14Published on: 20 Nov '14Published in: PloS one



Abstract

Chest radiographic abnormalities were common in HIV-infected individuals in the pre-combination antiretroviral therapy era, but findings may differ now due to a changing spectrum of pulmonary complications.Cross-sectional study of radiographic abnormalities in an HIV-infected outpatient population during the antiretroviral therapy era. Demographics, chest computed tomography, and pulmonary function tests were obtained in HIV-infected volunteers without acute respiratory illness from the University of Pittsburgh HIV/AIDS clinic. Overall prevalence of radiographic abnormalities and potential risk factors for having any abnormality, nodules, or emphysema were evaluated using univariate and multivariable analyses.A majority of the 121 participants (55.4%) had a radiographic abnormality with the most common being emphysema (26.4%), nodules (17.4%), and bronchiectasis (10.7%). In multivariate models, age (odds ratio [OR] per year  = 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.14, p<0.001), pneumonia history (OR  = 3.60, 95% CI  = 1.27-10.20, p = 0.016), and having ever smoked (OR  = 3.66, p = 0.013, 95% CI  = 1.31-10.12) were significant predictors of having any radiographic abnormality. Use of antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell count, and HIV viral load were not associated with presence of abnormalities. Individuals with radiographic emphysema were more likely to have airway obstruction on pulmonary function tests. Only 85.8% participants with nodules had follow-up imaging resulting in 52.4% having stable nodules, 23.8% resolution of their nodules, 4.8% development of a new nodule, and 4.8% primary lung cancer.Radiographic abnormalities remain common in HIV-infected individuals with emphysema, nodules, and bronchiectasis being the most common. Age, smoking, and pneumonia were associated with radiographic abnormalities, but HIV-associated factors did not seem to predict risk.

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