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Characterization of the Fur regulon in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

Research paper by Bronwyn G BG Butcher, Philip A PA Bronstein, Christopher R CR Myers, Paul V PV Stodghill, James J JJ Bolton, Eric J EJ Markel, Melanie J MJ Filiatrault, Bryan B Swingle, Ahmed A Gaballa, John D JD Helmann, David J DJ Schneider, Samuel W SW Cartinhour

Indexed on: 26 Jul '11Published on: 26 Jul '11Published in: Journal of bacteriology



Abstract

The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) is found in a wide variety of environments and must monitor and respond to various environmental signals such as the availability of iron, an essential element for bacterial growth. An important regulator of iron homeostasis is Fur (ferric uptake regulator), and here we present the first study of the Fur regulon in DC3000. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), 312 chromosomal regions were highly enriched by coimmunoprecipitation with a C-terminally tagged Fur protein. Integration of these data with previous microarray and global transcriptome analyses allowed us to expand the putative DC3000 Fur regulon to include genes both repressed and activated in the presence of bioavailable iron. Using nonradioactive DNase I footprinting, we confirmed Fur binding in 41 regions, including upstream of 11 iron-repressed genes and the iron-activated genes encoding two bacterioferritins (PSPTO_0653 and PSPTO_4160), a ParA protein (PSPTO_0855), and a two-component system (TCS) (PSPTO_3382 to PSPTO_3380).